Gay

Inkulumo yobungqingili itholakale indlela yayo eya ngesiNgisi kuyo yonke leminyaka kuGay Old French.

NgesiNgisi, ukubaluleka kwegama I-1890s enethemba elihle liqhubeka libizwa ngokuthi yi-Gay Nineties. Lokhu bekusolakala ukuthi kungakabi ngaphambi kwekhulu le-20th lapho leli gama laqala ukusetshenziswa ukuthi lisho ngokukhethekile "ubungqingili", kodwa bekuyobe sekutholile ukuxukwa kobulili.

Igama elithi gayety elisekelwe lihlala likhululekile kusuka ekubonisweni kweSensual futhi lifaka, ngaphambilini, lisetshenziswe ezihlokweni zezindawo zokuthakazelisa; ezifana nesibonelo seWB Yeats sathola inkulumo ka-Oscar Wilde kuGaiety Theatre eDublin.

Ukwenza ucansi

Leli gama lingase libe ne-Begun ukuthola ubudlelwane bokuziphatha okubi njengobudala njengekhulu le-14, noma ngabe lizuze kusukela ekupheleni kweleshumi nesikhombisa Ngasekupheleni kwekhulu leshumi nesikhombisa, futhi bekuzobaluleka ngokubaluleka kokuthi "umlutha wezinjabulo nokulahlekelwa", ukwanda ngokubaluleka kwayo okuyinhloko "kokunganaki" okubonisa "okungavinjelwe ukuvimbela ukuziphatha". Owesifazane ube yindoda engumfazi odayisa isifebe, kanye nomhlaba umfelandawonye. Ukusetshenziswa kobungqingili kimi "ubungqingili" kwakungokwenyuka kokusetshenziswa kwawo ubufebe: umfana ongqingili waba ngumfana noma umfana osemusha okhonza amakhasimende abesilisa.

Ngokufanayo lapho Kukholelwa Ukuba Ikati elungqingili indoda efundela iHobo, abahlinzeki bezokuphepha nokufundisa futhi bavame ukushintshana ngokocansi. Ukusebenzisa ubungqingili kwakwengeza ukukhuliswa kwalesi sigama sokuzibandakanya ngokobulili kokubili "okungenasidingo nokungenakuvinjelwa", okwakubonisa ukuzimisela ukuxosha izinsizakalo zobulili ezivamile noma ezihlonishwayo. Lokhu kusetshenziswa, okuqoshiwe kusukela kuma-1920, kungenzeka ukuthi kuvele ngaphambi kwekhulu le-20th, kodwa sekusetshenziselwa ukuphakamisa izindlela zokuphila ezingahambisani nhlobo, '' kusukela ngegama elilodwa elivamile elithi "gay Lothario", noma ngaphakathi egameni lezincwadi kanye ne-movie I-Gay Falcon (i-1941), okukhathazeka ukuthi umhloli wesifazane oyedwa Isihloko sokuqala "Gay".

Ngabe ubizwa ngokuthi "gay", okuphakamisa ukuthi wayejwayele futhi ayikho imali yokukhokhisa, ngaphandle kwesizathu. Lokhu kusetshenziselwa ukufaka isicelo kubesifazane. I-British Comic-strip Jane, ekuqaleni yakhishwa kuma-1930s, Akunakusho neze, ubungqingili obubhekwe ngenxa yesitayela sakhe sokuphila samahhala nesiningi samakhwenyana (nakuba ngaphezu kwalokho.

Ngisho nesigcawu esivela ku-Miss Furr no-Miss Skeene sika-Gertrude Stein (i-19-22) kungenzeka ukuthi iyindlela yokuqala yokuphrinta okusetshenziselwa leli gama ukuxhumana nobudlelwane bobulili obufanayo.Ngokwesibonelo:

Baya ... gay, bafunda izinto ezincane okuyizinto ezibaluleke kakhulu ukuthi babe gay, ... bebengabantu abashadile njalo.

-? UGertrude Stein, i-1922

Leli gama laqhubeka lisetshenziswa Ngokusebenzisa yonke incazelo ephawulekayo "yokungakhathazeki", njengoba kuboniswe igama le-Gay Divorcee (1934), ifilimu yomculo mayelana nombhangqwana.

Ukuletha umntwana (1938) kwakuyi-movie yokuqala yokusebenzisa igama elithi Gay ekubhekiseni. Esikhathini sokubukeka lapho izingubo zikaCary Grant zobunjwaye zithunyelwa kubahlanzi, uphoqeleka ukuba anike igqoke lezinsikazi elizinjiwe. Lapho omunye umlingiswa ebuza ngesembatho sakhe, uyaphendula, "Ngoba ngangihamba ngongqingili ngokuzumayo!" Njengoba lokhu kwakuyifilimu ejwayelekile emzuzwana, lapho ukusetshenziswa kweli gama ukubhekisela ekugqokeni (futhi, ngokwandisa, ubungqingili) besengabajwayele iningi labanamabhayisikobho, lo mzila ungashintsha futhi ukuthi, "Ngisanda kunquma ukwenza into engenangqondo."

Kuze kube manje, ukukhulunywa kokuqala kutholakale Emuva ku-1950 ngoba inkulumo ethi Gay njengegama elichazwe ngokwayo ukuze uthole ubungqingili livela ku-Alfred A. Gross, unobhala omkhulu kuGeorge W. Henry Foundation, owathi kusukela ngo-June 1950 umagazini we-SIR : "Angisadingeki ngihlangabezane nobungqingili obujabulisayo. Banezindlela zokuzichaza ngokuthi bangabangqingili kodwa leli gama liyi-misnomer.

Shintsha ukuya ku-gay ikakhulukazi

Phakathi nekhulu le-20th, ama-gay asungulwe ngendlela yokubhekisela emiphakathini yokuphila kanye ne-antonym yayo siqu ngqo, eyayinezincazelo zokuhlonipha, ukuqina, kanye nokuhlangana, bezuze ukuxhunyaniswa okuqondile kokubili ukuhlukumeza ngokobulili. Esikhathini sabantu abathandana nabo, ukuxhunyanwa okungeziwe kobuqili nokubukeka kwesembatho ("isambatho se-gay") kwaholela ekuhlanganiseni nekamu nokusebenza kahle. Le nhlangano yasiza ukuthi ukugxila kulokhu kuhloswe kuhilela incazelo yalo yamanje eyayihlanganiswe kuqala kuma-sub-amasiko. I-Gay yayiyigama elithandwayo kusukela eminye imininingwane, njenge-queer, yayikholelwa ukuthi iyayihlambalaza. Ubungqingili bubonakala njengokwelapha ngokweqile, njengoba ukuziphatha ngokocansi manje okubizwa ngokuthi "ubungqingili" kwakuyisikhathi sokuxilongwa kwesifo sengqondo ku-Manual Diagnostic and Statistical of Mental Disorders (DSM).

Phakathi nekhulu le-20th yaseBrithani, lapho ubungqingili besilisa bebengekho emthethweni ngaphambi koMthetho Wezenzo Zokuhlukunyezwa Ngokocansi 1967, ukukhomba omunye ngoba umlingani ubhekwa njengento ecasulayo kanye nokumangalelwa kwezenzo zobugebengu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, akekho amagama achaza noma yikuphi ingxenye yobungqingili okwakucatshangwa ukuthi kufanelekile emphakathini ohloniphekile. Ngakho-ke iningi lama-euphmisms liye lajwayele ukusayina ngokusola ubungqingili. Izibonelo zibandakanya abafazi "bezemidlalo" nabafana "abadwebi", ngokucindezeleka ngamabomu ngesiphakamiso esingenacala ngokuphelele.

Ama-1960 asho ukuthi ukuguquka kokubaluleka okubaluleke kakhulu Kuleli gay elithi "okungaxhaswanga" kulokho okwakamuva "ubungqingili". Efilimu yeBrithani yeDrama yeDrama Light up Sky! (1960), eqondiswa nguLillion Gilbert, kuma-antics eqembu laseBritain Army searchlight kulo lonke iMpi Yezwe II, empeleni kukhona indawo esiteshini sokungcebeleka lapho ubuntu obudlalwa khona noBenny Hill kusikisela isinkwa se-dinner esilandelayo. Uqala, "Ngingathanda ukuphakamisa ..." ngaleso sikhathi umuntu odla naye, owenziwe nguSidney Taller, uhlanganyela "Ngubani ozokwenza?" , ephakamisa isiphakamiso somshado. Umlingiswa weBenny Hill uyaphendula, "Akusikho kuwe ekuqaleni, awuyena uhlobo lwami". Wabe esenezela ukungabaza okuhlekisayo, "O, angazi, ungumuntu wesilisa othulile."

Kusuka ku-1963, umuzwa omusha omusha wale nkulumo wawubonwe kahle ngokulwela abantu. Ngokufanayo, uHubert Selby, Jr. encwadini yakhe yokugcina ye-1964 eByrooklyn, ubhala ukuthi umlingiswa "wayeziqhenya ngokuba ngongqingili ngokuzizwa engqondweni nangokweqile kunabo (ikakhulukazi besifazane) Abangewona abesilisa nabesifazane ..." Kamuva Izibonelo zencazelo yazo yokuqala yokuqala yeLizwi elisetshenziselwa isiko esithandwayo zihlanganisa isihloko se-1966 Animated TV series Uchungechunge lwe-Flintstones, lapho ababukeli beqinisekisiwe khona ukuthi "bayoba nesikhathi esidala gay." IHermits ye-1966 Herman ye-"No Milk Today", leyo waphenduka waba yi-Top Ten hit e-UK kanye ne-Top Forty hit Kusuka e-US, yayihlanganisa i-lyric "Akukho ubisi namuhla, kwakungenjalo ngaso sonke isikhathi; Le nkampani yayingumlingani, sasizovula ubusuku sibe usuku."

Ngo-June 1967, isihloko esihlokweni sokubuyekezwa kwe-Beatles 'Sgt. I-Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band albhamu ngaphakathi kwephephandaba laseBrithani nsuku zonke izinsuku ezishiwo, "Iqembu labadaka lithembele ekuthuthukeni komculo we-pop ne-LP yabo entsha" .Kodwa phakathi konyaka ofanayo, i-Kinks ibhale "uDavide Watts". ngokusobala ngokuphathelene nomona wesikole, ingoma eyayibizwa ngokuthi i-joke yohlobo, njengoba ixhunywe kuJon Savage ethi "The Kinks: I-Official Biography", ngenxa yesikhwama esithatha igama layo kumgqugquzeli wobungqingili ukuthi babehlangane ne-United Nations ejensi babenezidingo zothando umculi wezingane zikaRay Davies; ngakho-ke imidwebo "engumama gay and free fancy" ifakazela ukungaqondakali kwalokhu okushiwo ngaleso sikhathi, ngokubaluleka kwesibili kucacile kuphela kubantu abakuyo. Ngasekupheleni kuka-1970, '' isitolimende esiyinhloko seMadonna The Virgin Blessed Virgin | Madonna | UmJudakazi | umama | umzali wesifazane} UTyler Moore Show uhlanganisa nomakhelwane ophansi kaMary Richards, uPhyllis, ngokumemezela ngokucacile ukuthi iNdodanakazi Ebusayo ikhona, ubudala 30, namanje "ubungqingili nabancane."

Kunokungabaza okuncane ukuthi ingqingili ingase ibe yinto ethi abantu abathandana nabo basho ukuthi "Kuhle Njengawe", nokho akukho ubufakazi bokuthi lokhu kuyisiqalo esibizwa ngokuthi i-etymology ethandwa kakhulu.

Ubungqingili

  • Ukuzibandakanya ngokocansi, ubunikazi, ukuziphatha
  • Izihloko eziyinhloko: Ukuhlosana ngokobulili, ukuzibandakanya ngokobulili, nokuziphatha kocansi kwabantu

I-yank Psychological Association ichaza ukuqonda kobulili ngokuthi "indlela ehlala njalo yokuthandwa ngokomzwelo, ngokomzwelo, noma ngokobulili kubantu, abesilisa, noma abashadile be-2," esukela "ngesikhathi esisodwa, kusukela ekukhangeni okuhlukile kuya ekuhlukeni kobulili ekukhangeni okukhethekile ubulili obuqondile ". Ukuzibandakanya ngokobulili kungahle "kwabelwane ngokwemibandela yezinhlobo ezintathu: ukuhlukunyezwa ngokobulili (ngokusebenzisa izifiso zomzwelo, ezothando noma ezenzweni zobulili kumalungu abobulili obuhlukile), abantu abathandana nabesilisa nabesifazane (abanomqondo ongokomzwelo, othandana naye, noma ocansini noma oxhumana nabo ngokobulili ), kanye nenombolo ye-athomu ye-83 yocansi (ukuthola ukuzwelana, ukuthandana, noma ukukhwabanisa ukukhanga amadoda nabesifazane). "

Ngokusho kukaRosario, uSherrimshaw, uHunter, uBraun (2006), "ukuguquka kwesimo sokuziphatha ngokobulili, ubungqingili, noma ngokobulili (i-LGB) kuhlobene nokuzibandakanya kobulili futhi ngezinye izikhathi kuyinkinga ehlukumezayo. Ngokungafani namalungu amaqembu ahlukene amancane (isb. izinhlanga ezincane), abantu abaningi be-LGB abonakala bengakhuliswa kakhulu emphakathini wabanye ababafundela ukuthi bangubani abaqinisa futhi bawasekele lowo muntu. Esikhundleni salokho, abantu be-LGB bavame ukukhuliswa emiphakathini engazi ukuthi iyabutha kakhulu ekusebenziseni ubulili. "

Isishoshovu samalungelo aseGrithani amalungelo abantu baseGrithani uPeter Tatchell uphikelele ukuthi leli gay elithi gay liyisenzo nje samasiko esibonisa isimo samanje sobulili emphakathini onikeziwe, futhi sithi "uQeer, ubungqingili, ubungqingili ... ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, Konke kubumane nje okungaziwa okwesikhashana. Ngolunye ubusuku, asikwazi ukuwadinga. "

Uma othile ehlanganyela ezindabeni zobulili nomlingani wezocansi ezilinganayo kodwa aziziboni njengezigayane, imigomo efana ne-'closeted', 'discreet', noma 'bi-curious' ingase isebenze. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umuntu angase abeke njenge-gay ngenkathi engazange abe nobulili nomlingani wobulili obufanayo. izinqumo zamukela izici njengezilingani zomphakathi, kuyilapho zikhetha ukuba ziqede, noma zibheke ubuchwepheshe obuningi bobulili obufanayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, isazi sezinzwa singase sisekele ngokuthi "ubungqingili" kanti abanye bangacabanga ukuthi abesilisa nabesilisa nabesifazane bobulili obuhlukile bayabodwa. ngokuvamile lisho ukuphosa, noma ukufuna ukuthakazelisa nakuba kungekho msebenzi.

Amatemu

Abanye bayenqaba i-Gay Yokuchaza njengobambisene ne-label-identity ngenxa ye-They ukuthola it ngokweqile ukuzwakala komtholampilo; kodwa bakholelwa ukuthi kuhloswe kakhulu ezintweni zomzimba kunokuthandana noma ukukhanga, noma nje njengalesi sikhathi lapho ukuziphatha ngokocansi kucatshangwa ngengxabano yengqondo. Ngokumangazayo, igama elithi ubungqingili linqatshwa abanye ngokuthi yi-label-identity label njengoba beqonda ukuxukwa kwamasiko okungafunwa noma ngenxa yezingqinamba ezingalungile zokusetshenziswa kwegama lokusetshenziswa kwezwi.

Imiqulu yemodeli, njengalabo abathintekayo yi-Associated Press, ikhathazeka ngongqingili ngobungqingili:

I-Gay: ejwayele ukuchaza abesilisa nabesifazane badonsela ku-Sex efanayo, nakuba abesilisa abashadile begama lakho lamantombazane. ethandwa kakhulu phezu kobulili bobulili obuhlukile ngaphandle kwezinkomba noma izimo ezenzweni zocansi.

Kukhona Abantu Abaphika ukuthi ilebula yezisusa ezinye Kunomusa noma ukungathandeki okungafuneki. Umbhali u-Alan Bennett no-Anderson Leon Talley bafana nabanye abavela ngendlela efanayo nabesilisa abasha abavulekile nabangaphandle abenqaba ukubizwa ngokuthi bangqingili, bawuthola ukuvimbela ngokweqile futhi bawaqede.

Umphakathi Wendawo WaseGay. I-LGBT yomakhelwane

Ukuqala ngaphakathi phakathi kwe-1980 e-United States, kwakukhona umkhankaso okhumbule, ngaphakathi kwalokho okwakwaziwa ngokuthi u-homosexual neighborhood, ukuletha incazelo yobungqingili ekuboniseni izinkampani zobungqingili ezazibandakanya kokubili abesifazane nabesilisa abesilisa nabangqingili, futhi futhi basebenzise ulwazi oluqondile lwama-homosexual kanye nabangqingili, noma ngisho nabesilisa abathandanayo nabangqingili lapho bekhuluma ngaleyo ndawo. Izinhlangano ezifana ne-National Gay Task Force zaba yi-National Gay neLesbian Task Force. Kwakudingeka ukuthi uL ovela khona, okwenza i-L ngemuva kwesenzo se-G njengesibonakaliso esilandelayo sokubusa kwamadoda phezu kwamantombazane, nakuba abesifazane bathanda ukusebenzisa intombazane engongqingili. Kusukela kulesishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalombili lokhu kuye kwalandelwa eduze kwamanye amandla okuhlanganisa ngokulinganayo ukufaka izinto ezifana nesilulumagama ikakhulukazi ezikhomba ngaphandle kokungezwa kwe-transgender, ngokobulili, ubulili, nabanye abesilisa nabesifazane, abamele ingxabano ye-intra-community mayelana nokuthi Amancinjana ezocansi aphetha ingxenye yenkambiso ngqo yamalungelo abantu. Izinkampani zezindaba zamukele izinguqulo ngokusetshenziswa, ezalandela ukunambitha kanye nesibonelo salezi zinhlangano, njengoba zimelelwe ngaphakathi kokushicilelwa kwazo kanye nokuxhumana.

Umhlahlandlela

"R Indawo" I-Gay Bar e Seattle, Washington, United States.

Ukusetshenziswa kwesimo sobulili obufanayo Kungasetshenziswa Kokusetshenziswa ukuchazela Izinto ezixhunywe nabesilisa, noma izinhlangano eziyingxenye yalesi siko esashiwo. Ngokomzekelo, incazelo ye "gay bar" ibhekisela ekubeni ibha okungenzeka ukuthi iyingxenye yabalingani bobulili obufanayo, noma ingabe ingenye ingxenye yempucuko yabantu besilisa.

Ngayo ukuchaza into, njengento yokugqoka, Ibonisa ukuthi ibuhlungu kakhulu, kaningi. Lokhu kusetshenziselwa ukuphuthumisa isikhungo salo nyaka, kodwa sekuthole ukuxhunyaniswa kokucabanga ukuthi ukusetshenziswa.

Sebenzisa igama

Ithegi yobungqingili yayisetshenziselwa kuphela isichasiso Igama liqhubeka lisetshenziselwa igama ngokuthi "indoda yobungqingili" ngoba i-1970, iningi levame kakhulu ebuningi kunesigaba esingacacisiwe, njengokuthi "ama-gay aphikisana nale nqubomgomo. "Ukusetshenziswa kuyinto evamile kusuka ezihlokweni zezinhlangano ezibandakanya abazali, imindeni nabangane bamaLesbiya kanye ne-Gays (PFLAG) kanye nezingane ze-Lesbians kanye ne-Gays Everywhere (COLAGE). Kungasetshenziswa ukubhekisela kubantu, njengokuthi" gay "noma ngisho" ama-gay amabili ayekhona futhi, "kodwa lokhu kungase kuthathwe njengokungcolisa. Kwakubuye kusetshenziswe ngokufanayo ngenxa yobuntu beBrithani uDafydd Thomas.

Ukusetshenziselwa ukuhlelwa kwezinto ezijwayelekile

Uma kuhlangene nesimo sengqondo sokuhlekisa (isib. "Lokho kwakuyi-Gay"), inkulumo ethi ubungqingili iyinhlamba. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo phakathi kwabantu abasha kusukela isikhathi eside sokungahambisani kuyinto evamile ngenkathi igcina izincazelo zayo. inkulumo ethola umbono ngesikhungo ngokubaluleka kwayo, ku-1970 s .Ekuqaleni kwe-1980s, futhi ikakhulukazi eminyakeni eyisishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye, ukusetshenziswa njengokuthi ukuhlambalaza kwaba yindawo evamile.

Lokhu ukusebenzisa leli gama kwadunyiswa. Ngisho nesinqumo se-2006 BBC esivela kwiBhodi labaPhakathi ngaphakathi kokusebenzisa le nkulumo Ngaphakathi Kwalezi zimo zikaChris Moyle sikaMsombuluko wakhe, "Angifuni lowo, ungumlingani," weluleka "ukuqapha ekusetshenzisweni kwayo" ngale njongo:

"Igama elithi 'ubungqingili', ngaphandle kokusetshenziselwa ukusho ukuthi 'gay' noma 'ukungakhathazeki', bevame ukusetshenziselwa ukusho 'ukungenasici' noma 'rap'. Lokhu kusetshenziswe kwamanje kwegama phakathi kwabantu abasha .. Leli gama elithi 'ubungqingili' ... akudingeki libe yinto ecasulayo ... noma abakwa-homophobic ... Nokho, abaphathi bathi uMoyle uvele ehambisana nokuthuthukiswa kokusetshenziswa kwesiNgisi ... Ikomidi ... "likhululekile ngokulalela lesi sigwebo ngaphakathi kwalesi simo "Abaphathi bakholelwa ukuthi ekuchazeni ithoni yendandatho ngokuthi 'ubungqingili', i-DJ idlulisela ukuthi wacabanga ukuthi yi-'crap ', kunokuthi' gay '.

IBhodi leBhodi labaBhodi le-BBC

Izingane, uKevin Brennan, ophendula ngokuthi "ukusetshenziswa okungavumelekile kwenkulumo yokuzibulala ngokobulili yi-Main Stream tv DJs" yilokhu:

"Ngokuvamile ukubhekwa njengento enobungozi endaweni yokuhlambalaza okwenyusayo kumelela ngempela ... Ukunciphisa le nselele kuhlale kuhlangene kuyo. Iso eliyimpumputhe ngokuzibiza ngegama elingavamile, ebonakala ngendlela engafanele ukukhethwa, kuwukuphela "" Ukuziqhenya kwabantu kwasungulwa eBrithani ngaphansi kwesiqubulo esithi "ukuhlukumezeka kwabantu bangqingili," bedlala incazelo ephindaphindiwe yegama elithi "ubungqingili" emasikweni abasha, kanye nomqondo ovame ukuvezwa wokuthi ukuzongela abantu ngokweqile kuvamile phakathi kwabangqingili abasondelene nabo. Ubudlova, abacwaningi baseYunivesithi uMichael Woodford, u-Alex Kulick noPerry Silverschanz, kanye noprofesa we-Appalachian State University uMichael L. Howell, bathi ukusetshenziselwa kwegama elithi "ubungqingili" kwakuyisihluku esikhulu.

Umqondo wokuthi "ubungqingili" nokusetshenziswa kwe-Isibonelo igama elithi "umphefumulo ombili" alinakushintshaniswa ne "LGBT Native American" noma "i-Indian gay" etymologically etholakala ku-schwül (eshisayo, enomswakama), futhi ithole incazelo ye-pejorative Ngaphakathi kwesiko lomusha, ukusetshenziselwa ukuhlelwa kwamaphutha kwaqhamuka kwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba. Phakathi kwezikhulumi ezincane, leli gama linencazelo evela ekuhlekeleni (isb., okulingana nenkunkuma noma isicucu) ekuhlekeleni kwenhliziyo noma ukuhleka usulu (isib. kuya obuthakathaka, ongesilo, noma okhubazekile) Kulesi sisebenziselo, leli gama lingasho ukuthi "gay", ngoba lisetshenzisiwe, njengesibonelo, ukubonisana nento engapheliyo noma umqondo ongabonakali ongavumelaniyo. Izinga lokugxeka futhi liphikisana.

Izishoshovu zama-Anti-Gay kanye ne-rhetoric yizo zonke izihloko, imishwana ye-Catch, kanye nama-slogans asetshenziselwa ukukhetha okunye noma ubungqingili Ukuma ngokobulili nokuqeda abantu abesilisa nabesifazane, abesilisa nabangqingili, abesilisa ocansini, nabakwaTransgender (LGBT) ngabanye. Labo abaveza izisusa ezingokomoya. Abanye bachaza ukuthi kuyayithanda ikheli.

I-rhetoric iza nesisekelo sikahulumeni ku-Heterosexism, futhi ngokuqinisekile iyosuswa yi-homophobia, i-biphobia, ne-transphobia.

Ama-slogans Akuyona nje imibiko ye-invective Akhombisa ukungavumelani okusetshenziselwa ukwabelana nokuphikiswa kwamalungelo omthetho we-LGBT noma ukwamukelwa kwamadoda nabesifazane be-LGBT.

Izimpikiswano ezimbalwa kanye nemibono ephikisana nobulili obufanayo bukhuthaza futhi nakuba ukubaluleka kokungqubuzana kuhluke emkhathini kuya empucuko, Izenzo zibonakala phakathi kwesikhathi. Ukukhathazeka ngokuhlukunyezwa kwengane kungaba yinto enzima ngempela.

I-rhetoric ingase ifike ngaphansi kwendlwana yokuthi ubulili bobulili buya eyokuqala, noma ubungqingili bungaba nje iTrans Horse, noma "bubhubhisa imindeni" nobuntu.

Ukubonakaliswa okuphelele kwezombono eziphikisana nobungqingili obugcinwe e-United States phakathi naleso sikhathi (1964) zingatholakala erekhodi likahulumeni waseFlorida, ubungqingili kanye nobuzwe baseFlorida.

Buka ubungqingili kanye ne-Psych

Nakuba isikhungo sezokwelashwa sihlose isifiso sobulili obufanayo, ubungqingili basuswe ku-1974 ngenxa yokugula kwengqondo ku-Manual Diagnostic and Statistical of Mental Disorders (DSM) njengoba kungakhuthazwa ubufakazi obuqinile bemitholampilo futhi abuzange buhlangabezane nezidingo zomzwelo ukugula.

Kube nokuphikisana ngaphakathi kokuzikhethela. Kodwa-ke, ngokusekelwe kokuhlukunyezwa okuhlukile ngale mpikiswano, kulondolozwe, nabanye, i-American Society yezokuVikela kweNkohlakalo, Umndeni kanye neZakhiwo, ungathola ukuziphatha okuningi okuboniswa ngabaningi bokugxeka abangakholelwa okungaphezu kwamandla abantu, njengokwesibonelo isibalo sokudla komuntu. Ukuphikisana kokubambisana yiqiniso ukuthi kudidanisa "okungokwemvelo" besebenzisa "okungalungile", ngakho-ke kuphela ukubuyiselwa kwalokhu ukuthi ubungqingili bungalungile (njengobuncwane), mhlawumbe okungavamile .Lezi zinkinga ziyinkimbinkimbi kanye nemvelo yemvelo yalezi zimo "zemvelo" futhi "engokwemvelo" engase isetshenziswe ngezindlela eziningi ezilinganayo.

Ayikho imibhikisho yezingqingili eSan Francisco

A lot of denominations of bonke bobabili uAbraham kanye nezinye. Amasonto amaningi angamaKrestu kanye nabanengi bamaKrestu amanengi (okutjho, '' uPat Robertson noJerry Falwell) batjho amatheksthi eBhayibhilini obulili bobulili obufanako bobulili bobulili obufanayo bubi khulu. La madoda namabandla bacabanga ukuthi lolu hlobo lwezenzo zobulili njengomsebenzi womlomo womlomo nangokwemvelo (eduze kobufebe obuphathelene nohlobo oluthile) yizinhlobo zobufebe okufanele ziqondiswe. Lezi zibopho zivame ukukhuluma ngobudlova nokuzonda.

Ngidinga ukugcizelela ukuthi yikuphi ukukhathazeka kwethu ukuthola ukuthi izithelo zakho zezono zihlanganisiwe kanye noKristu njengokungathi uzwela lulimazi noma lubekwe icala. Sincenga ukuthi i-Instance of the Lord, ukuthi yaxoshwa isono esamkelwa isoni. Kufanele siphumelele ngokuphumula nokuphana kulokhu othintekile, sikhonze izidingo zabo futhi sibasize izimpikiswano.

Amanye amasonto ayenqaba umbono wezinkolelo zobungqingili nokubukeka kobulili njengokufana nokuba nomunye umuntu kanye nomfutho wokuziphatha okungahle kwenzeke njalo ngesikhathi esisodwa. Izishoshovu eziningi eziphikisanayo nokuvuvukala, isibonelo, ezimbalwa ezibhalwe ngaphakathi kwesigaba esilandelayo, zisetshenziselwa amabandla abambisana nabantu, ngokukhethekile kuFred Phelps, umdali we-site godhatesfags.com kanye neWest West boro Baptist Church. Amanye amabandla, isibonelo iMetropolitan Community Churches, akholelwa ngobuqotho ukuthi izenzo zocansi ziyisono futhi ngokuvamile ziyaqinisekisa.

Ubungqingili bubhekwa njengesono ku-Islam. Emazweni ambalwa aseMpumalanga Ephakathi, imisebenzi yobungqingili iyagwetshwa ngokudlula. Isimo esisodwa esivuma ubuhlobo bobulili obufanayo eMpumalanga Ephakathi yi-Israyeli, kodwa ubungqingili bungokomthetho phakathi kwezizwe ezimbalwa. Ngaphezu kwa-Israyeli, imisebenzi efanayo yobulili isebenza kusukela ezindaweni zasePalestina (West Bank) njenge-1951. Ubungqingili obuhilela abesifazane buvunyelwe emazweni amakhulu amaSulumane kunobungqingili obuhilela abantu abadala.

Ngamanye amazwi ikakhulukazi, uMbusi Jerry Falwell uthi abantu abangqingili (phakathi kwabanye abaningi) babangela ukuhlasela kwamaphekula eNew York naseWashington, DC ngoSeptemba 1 1, i-2001, ngokubangela ukuhlukunyezwa kwamaSulumane asemthethweni. Emoyeni wehlelo lobuKristu lithelevishini I-700 Club, u-Falwell wenza isimemezelo esilandelayo (okwathi kamuva waxolisa): ''

"Ngiyakholwa ngempela ukuthi abahedeni nama-abortionists nabesifazane besifazane nabangqingili abazama ngobuqotho ukwenza leyo ndlela yokuphila ehlukile - i-ACLU, People For the American Way, bonke abaye bazama ukuhlukanisa iMelika- -Ngibonisa umunwe ebusweni babo bese ngithi, "Usize lokhu kwenzeke"

AmaBuddha ambalwa nawo ayalahla. Ngendlela, ku-1997, i-14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso yathi, "Kusukela kumbono wamaBuddha, amadoda nabesilisa nabesifazane besifazane ngokuvamile babhekwa ukuziphatha kabi ngokobulili."

AmaBuddha ambalwa nawo ayalahla. Ngendlela Yesibonelo:

Ngenxa yesigxobo esivamile sobunzima be-1 icala kungenzeka ukuthi isiqubulo esithi "i-AIDS Kills Fags Dead", isichazamazwi salesi sikhangiso esithi "Ukuhlaselwa: Kbulala Bugs Dead", umgqa womugqa osetshenziselwa ukukhangisa ngevidiyo kwi-SC Johnson insectticide.

Isiqubulo sabonakala kuwo wonke amashumi eminyaka okuqala we-AIDS evela e-United States, umzuzu lapho lesi sifo siphelile ngokufa futhi satholakala ukuthi sinobungqingili. Isiqubulo sibanjwa ngokusheshisa njengomsindo, i-truism, noma ngisho nento okuthiwa i-graffiti. Kubikwa ukuthi isiqubulo esivele sibonakala kubantu kusukela ekuqaleni kweminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye ubudala, lapho uSebastian Bach, umculi ohola phambili wale nkampani enezinsimbi ezinamandla zeSikid Row, enxibe ekhanda eliphonswe kuye ngezilaleli .Inguqulo ye-"ngempela ukuphulukisa i-AIDS fags. "

Imincintiswano eminingi yokusebenzisa ishodo ubungqingili. Lokhu bekukhona, njengesibonelo, esitholwe emngcwabeni kaMathewu Sheppard, futhi ukubulawa kobudlova, ngisho nalapho uFred Phelps nabalandeli bakhe bewuqeda khona.

Njengoba kuqinisekiswe yi-World Health Organization, amantombazane aqukethe amaphesenti angu-50 abantu ababhekana ne-HIV.

Iphesenti yezimo ze-HIV ezingase zitholakale kulo Mbudlelwane weziPhumela zihamba ngokuya ngohlamvu. Emuva eRussia, enye yezinkinga ze-HIV ku-2006 lapho eqinisweni isitayela sokudlulisela sasizwakala, cishe isigamu sasingumphumela wokuya ocansini ngokobulili obufanayo, okwenyuka isilinganiso. Amaphesenti cishe angu-60 amacala ayebhekiswe emisebenzini yobulili phakathi kwamadoda. E-Caribbean, kunconywa ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angu-40 we-HIV amacala okuphela komsebenzi wesondo phakathi kwabesilisa. Mayelana namaphesenti angu-XNUM we-HIV ukutheleleka ngaphakathi kwe-United States, ku-53, iphelile. Iphesenti elibaluleke kunazo zonke lokugula kwegciwane lesandulela ngculaza eCanada, ku-2005, libhekwe ngokocansi phakathi kwamadoda, lapho njengaseNtshonalanga Yurophu ukuthi amaphesenti ayebhekwa ngocansi.

Ama-slurs ambalwa afana ne-Lady Boy, umgibe, no-She-Male Capitalize ukuthi abesifazane abathintekayo bayabantu abadala. Umbono womuntu ohlukile kobulili bakho ongahambisani nokuziphatha kwabo ngokocansi kuye kwanyiswa ngokuqondene nendlela umuntu oyingozi okufanele abe yihlaya. Ngokuziphendulela, ekuphenduleni kwelinye idrayivu yokuthuthukiswa kwezitatimende zokulwa nokubandlulula mayelana nezindlu zokuphumula ezivamile, owayekade e-Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee wathumela lo mlayezo kuNgqungquthela kaZwelonke Wezokusakaza Ngokwenkolo kulo lonke uhlelo lwakhe lwe-20-16 ehhovisi lakhe likaMongameli: ''

Sisezindaweni edolobheni ngemuva kokubuka imiyalo yokuthi ingane yakho, lapho ingena endlini yangasese ingase ingacasuli, ngakho-ke uma umuntu ekhonjelwe lapho futhi futhi ngeke ukwazi ukucasula Uma engathi umfana oyedwa angazizwa. Ngidinga ukuthi ngeluleka ngumuntu ukuthi Ngake ngangilokhu ngingazi ukuthi ngizizwe njengowesifazane njengoba kufika isikhathi sokudubula amanetha e-PE. Nginesiqiniseko sokuthi ngingazibonela umama wami.

U-Huckabee Uzoveza "ukuthi kukhona okungahambi kahle ngokumphoqelela ukubuyiswa okuncane ngabaholi be-LGBT, isibonelo uRebecca Isaacs, futhi umphathi we-Both Equality Federation, owathi ku-The Huffington Post:" Wonke umuntu kudingeka asebenzise indawo yokuphumula futhi wonke umuntu uyakhathalela ngokuphepha nokuyimfihlo. Ukuphawula kukaMnu Huckabee kubangele isimo sezulu lapho, naphezu kokuzuzwa kwamuva kwamanje, abantu be-transgender baqhubeka bebhekene namazinga aphakeme kakhulu okubandlululwa nobudlova.

Kunezihloko ze-Anti-transgender. I-Roffee ne-Waling isungulwe ngaphesheya kwenethiwekhi ye-LGBTIQ +, kube khona ukudideka okukhulu ngokuqondene nalokho amadoda nabesifazane abakwazi ukukubona, futhi lokhu kuhlukana nabanye abantu abengeziwe. Lokhu kudideka kunomthelela ekunqumeni nasekucabangeni ukuthi manje sineziphathamandla ezihamba ngaphakathi endaweni kanye nezinkathazo.

Ukuxhashazwa nokuhlukunyezwa kwe-Gay ukuhlukumeza ngokomzimba noma ngamazwi Ngaphandle komuntu obhekene nomhlukumezi ngokuba ubungqingili, ubungqingili, i-transgender, abantu abesilisa nabesifazane, isibonelo, amadoda ayingqingili.

Ngisho nokuchithwa "kungaba yisiqephu esithile, futhi nokho okwamanje. Ukushiya amagama kungase kusetshenziselwe ukuxosha, ukususa, ukwesatshiswa, nokuhlukunyezwa kwangempela noma okusongelayo. Kuqukethe iziqu ezimbalwa ezijwayelekile futhi kungase kwenzeke.

I-Gay ihilela izenzo ezenza ngenhloso futhi ezingenakunyuswa kumuntu ogulayo, imisebenzi ephindaphindiwe ngabanye abaningi ngokumelene nomunye umuntu, kanye nokungalingani kwamandla okwakungokwengqondo noma ngokomzimba. Imigomo efana nokuhlukunyezwa kwezingane, ukuhlukumezeka kwabantu abashadile, kanye nokushaywa kwe-queer nazo zifakiwe.

I-Gay-bashing yenzeke amashumi eminyaka manje futhi iqhubeka nanamuhla. I-Homophobia e-United States yayingathí sina kakhulu ekupheleni kwe-1940s nakwa-1950s okuqala, lapho abantu abaningi besinqunu bephoqelelwe eziphathimandla zombuso ngamapulangwe asetshenziswe kuMengameli uHarry S. Truman noDwight D. Eisenhower.

I-Lavender Scare Insizwa ishayela imililo evela kulesi sikhwama esibomvu. Enkulumweni ejwayelekile, ubungqingili nama-communist baye baxolisa. Zombili amakilasi zazibhekwa njengama-sub-cultures ezafihlwa izibopho zokuzinikela, isayensi kanye nemigomo yamasiko, kanye nezindawo zabo zomhlangano. Zombili amakilasi zazicatshangelwa ezikhundleni zabo ezicasuliwe noma ezibuthakathaka. Futhi amakilasi ngayinye ayekholelwa ukuthi angamhloniphi uNkulunkulu nokuziphatha okubi. Abantu abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi amakilasi e-2 asebenza ekubhubhiseni amaphoyisa.

Uphinde wanqoba futhi akazange akwenze lokhu, nakuba ayebambisene naye, uqhubekele izingxabano zakhe kumaKhomanisi ekugxeka ubungqingili eziphathimandla zikahulumeni. Esebenzisa amahemuhemu aqoqwe uDrew Pearson, umbhali waseNevada wabhala ukuthi uMcCarthy neseluleko sakhe esiyinhloko, uRoy Cohn, baqeda ubungqingili. Akekho uMcographer we-BiCarthy owenze kube lula.

Ukuxhashazwa kwe-Queer

U-Eagle Canada ugijime umbuzo omkhulu kunabantwana beSikole esikhulu se-3700 eCanada phakathi kukaDisemba 2007 noJuni 2009. Irekhodi lokuphetha kulolu khetho, "Wonke Amakilasi Kuzo Zonke Izikole", athunyelwe ku-2011, athola ukuthi amaphesenti angu-70 wabantwana abathintekayo abaqaphele ukuthi "ngongqingili" nsuku zonke ebukhosini, futhi amaphesenti angu-48 abaphendulile athole "fagot", "lezbo" futhi "Dyke" nsuku zonke. Amaphesenti angu-58 cishe cishe i-1400 kulabo bafundi be-2400 abahlanganyela evoti ye-EGALE bavusa imibono. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-EGALE yathola ukuthi abafundi bekolishi mhlawumbe mhlawumbe babengabathonya amabhubhu ngokuzonda abantu noma i-transphobia yaphela yazi ngalokhu. ngaphakathi kokubangela ukuphazamiseka komzwelo ngenxa yokukhathazeka komphakathi okusho ukuthi mhlawumbe hhayi ngokuqondile ngokucindezeleka komphakathi (ngaphakathi kwalesi simo, ukuxhashazwa) kuhlale kugxila impikiswano yayo futhi ngakho-ke kungenakukwazi ukuphendula ngokwanelisayo izidingo zomuntu obhekene nokukhathazeka komphakathi.

I-EGALE, Kanye nesifundo esandulele sesithole ukuthi othisha kanye ne-Faculty uhulumeni kungenzeka ukuthi bahambelane nomqambi.

I-graffiti etholakala ezindaweni zomhlaba neyekolishi, futhi futhi "eyona enomuntu ohlala njalo", iyisinye isihlobo sokuhlukunyezwa kwe-Queer.

Abanye abaphenyi bacacisa ukuthi bahilela ubuntwana Njengoba bengase babe nemiphumela emibi ngokomoya, cishe noma yikuphi ukucwaninga mayelana nokuxhashazwa kwezingane.

Ukuhlaziywa kokucwaninga kwamatshumi ayisishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye kwabahlanu kubafana Abaqhutshwa ezikoleni eziyishumi nambili eLondon, eNgilandi phakathi kwe-1998 ne-1999 babonisa ukuthi izomnotho ezazisetshenzisiwe ukuthi inkulumo ethi "gay" ukumaka umfana olandelayo ngendlela ehlelelwe ukuthi umusho ngoba "nje ihlaya", "nje kuphela" futhi kuncane kakhulu isimemezelo semikhuba yezocansi ebonakalayo. Isazi sezenhlalakahle saseMelika uMichael Kimmel kanye nomqondisi wezengqondo waseMelika uGregory Herek baqamba ukuthi amadoda agodla ukuqwashisa kwabo la madoda futhi okungenzeka empeleni nje ukulahla lo wesifazane ngokugxeka ngokuyisisekelo futhi owesifazane oshadile. Ukwakha mayelana nomcabango wokwahlukanisa ngokwabo abanye abaphenyi bakhombisa ukuthi lokhu kuphazamisa ukulahla kwesifazane kungase kube misogyny. Lezi zindaba zahlaziywa ku-2007, lapho isazi sezenhlalakahle saseMelika uCJ Pascoe sichaza lokho akubikezela ukuthi "inkulumo ye-fag" esikoleni esiphakeme saseMelika ngaphakathi kwincwadi yakhe, Dude, Uyi-Fag.

Intsha yobungqingili nabesilisa abesilisa nabesifazane basuke benokuthambekela kakhulu ukurekhoda ukuxhashazwa. Ekubuyekezweni kwe-1 kwahlushwa ukungafani nokuthintwa okuningi.

Izizathu Zokuhlukumezeka Kwabancane

Intsha yobungqingili nobungqingili ingadala izinhlobo ezinzima zokuxubha nokukhathazeka kusukela zisuka phezulu. Eqinisweni, i-71.4percent ye-LGBT izakhamuzi zihlangana nezinkinga zokudabuka (i-MDD). Kubantu be-LGBT, i-MDD ingaba nomphumela kusuka komunye walabo Emva kwalokhu: ukucindezela ukuvumelanisa, ukuzethemba, ukucindezeleka okuncane Ukwenqatshwa komndeni, ubudlova, ukuthuthukiswa kobambiswano, kanye nokubeletha.Indondo nokuzihlonipha kuhamba ndawonye. Uma umuntu we-LGBT echazwe ngokuqondile ukuthi ujabulele ukuthi yiziphi izinto okufanele azihlolisise, zibeka umonakalo ekuzihloneleni kwazo. Uma kunikezwa amazwi abantu ukuthi babonakala yini i-Adore, njll,. uqala ukubenza bazizwe bephephile. Lokhu kwenza bazizwe behlelekile Uma bengahle ukuthi babekuphi. "Ukuphuma" Ngempela kuyisimiso esisebenzisayo ukuphenya uma indoda ye-LGBT isisiza ukuthi iqondwe ukuthi i-Gay, ubungqingili, njll. Ukuphuma ngaphandle kuvame ukuba ngumuntu osebenzayo nomakhelwane we-LGBT, bahlale bekhuluma nabazali babo Uma bebhekana nokulahlwa kwendlu kamuva Baza ngaphandle bonke bazizwa bengenaki futhi bengathandeki. Zingaba khona ngalokhu Ukuze kuhlaselwe phansi kwe-melancholy. Ukuxhumeka nokudalulwa kwabazali kuye kwahlotshaniswa ngokucophelela njengoba abantu bazizwa bebeletha Kanye nokunye okubalulekile endaweni yokuzimela, ngokukhethekile lapho kungenzeka khona ukusuka endaweni ye-LGBT. Kamuva, ngo-Mashi 20-16, kuvunyelwe ukuba abazali be-LGBT bathole zonke izizwe ezingama-50. Ukungabi Nokwazi ukuveza ukuthi i-Youngster yabo ekhethekile ingabangela ukuqubuka komzimba, noma kunjalo uma benqatshelwe ukuthi ukulungiswa okulungile, kwakha ukucasuka. Ukukhathazeka okuncane Okunguye akuyona into enkulu kunabo bonke, kodwa ngeke kwenzeke noma ubani azizwe kangcono nakakhulu. Ukucindezelwa okuncane kunchazwa ngokuthi Ukucindezeleka okubangelwa abantu be-LGBT ngenxa ye-Identification yabo. Ubudlova bungalalisa umuntu ngqo esimweni sokuthi ubudlova empeleni buhlobo nje lokuhlukunyezwa, ukuhlukunyezwa ngokomzwelo, noma ukuhlukunyezwa. I-Individual Kungenzeka ihlukunyezwe ezingeni lapho i-melancholy iba khona kakhulu futhi futhi ayisekho Okuhlangenwe nakho okujabulisayo. Lezi ziguquguquko nazo ziyakha futhi bonke basebenza ndawonye Tough ukuvimbela i-MDD.

Amaprosesa wokuxhashazwa kwe-Queer

Ukuhlukunyezwa kwe-Queer kungenza abanye abagulayo bazizwe beyingozi futhi bangenakujabula emhlabeni wonke. Ukuhlukumezeka kungathinta ukubhekisela komfundi ku-faculty. Abanye abagulayo bangase babuyele ekuzizwa benesifo sokukhubazeka futhi bathathe umphakathi njengendlela yokusebenza. Ezinye izisulu zokuxhashazwa kwezilwane zingase ziqale ukukala imiphumela ye-learning helplessness. I-Queer noma abafundi bangase bazame ukudlula njengokungqingili ukuze baqede ukuxhashazwa kwe-Queer. Ukudlula kukhulula umfundi ngokusekela, nomqaphi noma abafundi ababazayo, ababambisana nabo. Inhlangano enkulu yeZizwe Ezihlangene izama ukudlulela futhi ingase izwe imibala ebonisa imizwelo futhi ibonise imizwelo, ngalokhu kuzama. I-Queer kanye nokubuza imibuzo enesifo sesibindi kunomthelela omkhulu wokusetshenziswa kabi kwamakhemikhali kanye nokutheleleka nge-STI nokutheleleka ngegciwane lesandulela ngculazi, okungase kuqhubekele phambili kuze kufike ekuvuthweni. Ukuhlukunyezwa kwe-Queer kungabuye kubonakale njengokubonakaliswa kwalokho okushiwo yi-yank tutorial Ilan Meyer ucingo ukucindezeleka okuncane, okungabathinta abantu abancane abahlukunyezwa ngokocansi abahlukumezekile abadinga ukuba babe khona ngaphakathi kwesiko esasibubanzi.

Ukuziphatha okucacile nokuqhathaniswa nokuziphatha okubandlulula nokubandlulula kuzilungiselelo zokufundisa

Ukuhlukumezeka kwabantu abathandanayo nabangenasidlangalaleni ku-izilungiselelo kungase kuboniswe njengokucacile nokucacile. ukuveza ubudlova nokuhlukumezeka ngokweqile kuqukethe izenzo ezimbi ezazakhela izifundo zizwe zihlazekile, zonakaliswe, zihlaselwe noma zisatshiswa. abasebenzi nabangane bakho kubonakala sengathi bangenele uma befaka lezi ziqephu. Lokhu kunomthelela ekuqaliseni lezi zenzo eziqashelwa njengezinyathelo zansuku zonke noma ezinye izindlela zokuqeda izingxabano phakathi kwabafundi besikole. ubudlova obubandlulula kanye ne-transphobic nazo zonke izidakamizwa ezihlobene nobulili-ezihlobene nesikole - kubikwa ngenxa yezifundo zokukhathazeka ngokuphindisela, kuhlangene nokutholakala okungenele noma okungekho, ukusekelwa kanye nokuhlelwa kwezinhlelo. Ukungabi khona kwemigomo ephumelelayo, ukuvikelwa noma izixazululo kunomthelela ekuvuseleleni kabusha lapho izigameko ziba khona ngokwendabuko.

Ebizwa ngokuthi 'ubudlova obungokomfanekiso' noma 'ubudlova' bezinkampani, kuncane kunokubonisa ubudlova. Iqukethe ukumelela okweqile noma isimo sengqondo esivame ukuzizwa singenabungozi noma emvelo emphakathini we-varsity, noma ngabe sikwazi ukukhuthaza noma ukukhuthaza ukucabanga kwangaphambili kanye nokwenza izinto ezibucayi, kanye nokuqhubekisela phambili izinkolelo eziyingozi. Amasampula obandlululo olucacile kanye nobudlova obuphephile obubandakanya:

  • Ngokusekelwe ekuthandweni kwabo ngokobulili noma ukuzibandakanya ngokobulili / isibonelo, isayensi kubafundi besilisa abesilisa nabesilisa kanye nomdlalo wabafundi besilisa abesilisa nabesifazane).
  • Yiba nesikhungo esikhulu noma isithonya (isibonelo, ngemibono yabafundi be-LGBTI baphathwa njengengxenye emincane futhi engabalulekile).
  • Ukuvuselela izinkolelo ezihlobene nokuzibandakanya ngokocansi noma ukuhlonipha ngokobulili / ukuveza izinto eziphathekayo noma uqeqesho lothisha, njengezithombe nezinkulumo (isibonelo, okhuluma ngezocansi njengento evamile).

Izibalo nezibonelo

Ucwaningo lwe-1998 ngokucwaninga okuqhutshelwa yi-Association of Academics and Lecturers, inyunyana yabasebenzi be-United Kingdom, igama elithi "gay" libikwa ukuthi liyiyona ndlela evelele ekusetshenzisweni kokuhlukunyezwa okutholakala yizifundiswa nsuku zonke.

Mayelana nengxenyana elula yama-gay nabafundi besifazane abathandana nabo abaseBrithani bangama-gay bullying ku-2007, ngokuhambisana nesifundo esenziwe yi-Faculty Education Unit ye-LGB isishoshovu se-activist Stonewall. iningi elakade liyi-hangdog lihlaselwe ukuhlaselwa ngamazwi, iningi lalingama-40% lihlaselwa ngokomzimba, kanti abangu-17% bathole izinsongo zokufa. I-jointly show that in over five hundred of academics akakwazanga ukuphendula ulimi olubandlulula olwalutholakala ngokucacile ngaphakathi ekamelweni, kanti kuphela amakholeji angu-25 kuphela etshela abafundi ukuthi ukuhlukunyezwa okubandlulula kwakungalungile, kubonisa "isithombe esimangalisayo sezinga labo lokubandlulula ukuxhashazwa okwenziwa ngabanye abafundi futhi, ngokuyingozi, abasebenzi bekolishi ", nanoma yiziphi izifundo ezenziwa ngothando olufanayo ku-2012, lezi zithandani zathi abafundi abangu-90 babengenalo coaching ekuvimbeleni ukuxhashazwa ngokobandlululo.

Izinga lokuzibulala liphakeme phakathi kwabantu be-LGBT. Ngokwesifundo esifanayo esenziwa yi-Faculty Education Unit ye-LGB isishoshovu se-activist Stonewall, inhlolovo ye-intanethi ibike ukuthi ingxenye engamashumi ayisikhombisa yowesifazane ohlanganyele ejensi leZizwe Ezihlangene eyaziwa ngokuthi i-LGBTQ, kanye nengxenye engamashumi ayisihlanu nesishiyagalolunye yenkampani yabahlanganyeli e-United Nations ebizwa ngokuthi i-LGBTQ wayezicabangile ngokuzibulala. Ku-1985, F. I-Paris itholakala ukuthi ukubulawa kwabantu abasha ngokobulili kungase kuhlanganise kuze kube ngu-30% kubo bonke abantu abazibulala ngokuzibulala phakathi kwesizwe saseNyakatho Melika. Lokhu kunomthelela wokuzibulala njengesizathu esithathu esibangela ukufa phakathi kwentsha eneminyaka engu-10 - 24, ebikwa yi-ejensi kahulumeni.

Amacala

(Podlesny) ngokumelene nezikhulu esikoleni sakhe esiphakeme esidlangalaleni esidlangalaleni e-Ashland, eWisconsin ngenxa yokwenqaba ukungenelela 'ekuhlukunyezweni okuphikisayo kwamaGay ngokomzimba nangamazwi ngabanye abafundi' kuye kokuthi ubekwe ngaphansi kwakhe futhi okwaholela ekutheni abekwe esibhedlela.

UMatewu Sheppard wayengumlingani we-degree yank ekolishi indoda e-University of American state United Nations ejensi yabanye abahlukunyezwa futhi bafa eLaramie, umbuso waseMelika ngenyanga kaGregorian ikhalenda 1998, okusolakala ukuthi uyabonga ngokuziphatha kwakhe ngokobulili. Ukufa kwakhe ekugcineni kukhiqiza ukulungiswa komthetho wokulwa nokuhlukunyezwa njengoMatewu Sheppard noJames Byrd, Jr. Umthetho Wokuvimbela Izigebengu Zenzondo.

Umfundi ophakeme uDerek Henkle obhekene necala lokubhekana nokusebenza kwabaphathi besikole kanye nokukhathazeka kaningi ngabangane bakhe eReno, Nevada. Icala lakhe ngokumelene nesifunda se-varsity kanye nabanye abaqondisi abaningi baholela ekuhlaleni kwe-2002 lapho isifunda sesivumelanise khona ukwenza izinchungechunge zezinqubomgomo ukuvikela abafundi besilisa nabangqingili futhi bakhokhe i-Henkel $ 451,000.

U-Damilola Taylor uhlaselwe yiqembu elingumakhelwane elisha le-Nov 20, i-2000 ePeckham, eSouth London; wabulala wabulawa kanye nebhodlela eliphukile ngaphakathi kwethanga, okwehlisa i-arteria femoral. I-BBC, i-Telegraph, i-Guardian kanye namaphephandaba ezizimele ezibika ngesikhathi lapho emaviki phakathi phakathi kwe-United Kingdom evela eFrank Republic yaseNigeria ngakho-ke ukuhlaselwa kwakhe kwabe sekuhlukunyezwa nokushaya, kufaka phakathi ukubandlulula okushiwo yinhlamba yabafana ubuhlakani bakhe. "Abangenele bamtshela ukuthi wayeyingqingili." "Kungenzeka ukuthi akaqondi ukuthi kungani ebizwa ngokuthi i-hangdog esikoleni, noma kungani ezinye izingane zamhlekisa ngokuthi 'gay' - ukuthi leli gama alisho lutho ngalutho nganoma yikuphi ukuhlonipha. uthe "Abafana baqedile ukufunga kuye ngamazwi amaningi asabekayo." Lezi zinto zaziyigama lakhe elilodwa. Umama wakhe wayekhulume ngokuphathelene nalokhu kuxhaphazwa, nakuba izifundanga azizange zithathwe ngokungathí sina. "Uthe abafundi babesolwa ngendodana yakhe gay and'd yena ngoLwesihlanu odlule.Nyanga eyodwa lapho ebulawa, uyise ufana naye, "Ngakhuluma naye futhi wayekhala ngokuthi ngu-hangdog futhi kuthiwa ubizwa ngamagama. Uye wabizwa ngokuthi 'gay'. "Phakathi nonyaka wezombangazwe omusha we-2 eminyakeni edlule, kwathi lapho bekungakaze kube khona ukutholakala kwecala lobugebengu, uPeter Tat esihogweni, iphoyisa lamalungelo abantu, wathi," Ezinsukwini ezibangelwa ukubulala eningizimu ELondon ngoNovemba 2000 ukuthi wahlukunyezwa ngokuhlukunyezwa nokuhlukumeza, futhi wabuza ukuthi kungani iziphathimandla zazinakekele lokhu ngaphambili nangemva kokufa kwakhe.

Ku-2009, uCarl Joseph Walker Hoover, umlingani we-11 oneminyaka engu-18 ubudala e-Springfield, eMassachusetts, wazibophezela ngezinga elihlangene le-twine kagesi. Umama wakhe ofanayo nabo ekilasini lakhe i-lyceum wayene-hangdog futhi ebizwa ngokuthi "ubungqingili" ngesimiso.

Ku-2010, ubungqingili baseCameroon banikezwe indawo yokukhoseliswa ngaphakathi kwe-uk uma kutholakale ukuthungatha ukuthi wayehlaselwa yisixuku esinobudlelwane esivuthayo eCameroon lapho bebona ukuthi uyamlinganisa umlingani wakhe wesilisa. UNgqongqoshe wezokuXhumana waseCameroon, u-Issa Tchiroma, wenqabe ukusola kwezisongqingili.

U-Tyler Clementi uzibophezele ekuzibulaleni ku-Septti amabili, i-2010, lapho umngane wakhe e-Rutgers University e-QT ebhala ukuhlangana kwakhe kobulili nomunye umuntu.

Indoda eneminyaka engu-32 eneminyaka eyinhloko, eScotland yayinama-hangdog futhi ixhaswe umholi wayo, isiteleka somuzi, ngaphambi kokuqedwa. Kamuva wafaka isicelo sebhizinisi futhi wanqoba umklomelo we- #120,000.

Enyangeni yekhalenda yaseGregory, inhlangano eyishumi nane, i-2011, intsha yaseCanada uJamie Hubley, indodana yaseLottawa ilungu lekhansela lase-Ottawa, u-Allan Hubley, wazibulala ngesikhathi esebenzile inyanga inyanga ngokuphathelene nokuhlukumezeka kwamadoda angama-gay ayebhekene nayo ekilasini. Ukuxhashazwa kwase kuqalile ngaseBangeni lesi-7, abafundi bebhasi likaJamie benza umzamo wokufaka amabhethri emlonyeni wakhe ngenxa yokuthanda kakhulu i-ice skating phezu kweHockey.

UPhillip Parker, umfundi waseGordonsville, eTennessee, oneminyaka engu-14 oneminyaka engu-13 ubudala, utholwe efile ngoJan amabili, i-2012. Wazibulala ngenxa yokuhlukunyezwa kwezingane. Uyise wakhe, i-United Nations ejensi ebizwa ngokuthi uPhillip, uthi "Lona ngubaba wami. Ngimthanda ngempela. Ngiyishaya indiva. Akufanele afune ukuziqeda ukuze ekugcineni alahlekelwe empilweni "emzimbeni kwakuyincwadi, eyabhalwa:" Ngicela uvumele iPine Tree State ukuba umama ".

UKenneth Weishuhn, osanda kuvela esikoleni esiphakeme sase-South O'Brien e-Iowa, wazishaya ngokushesha lapho ehlukumezeka kakhulu, ukuxhashazwa kwe-cyber kanye nokubulawa kwesibindi ku-2012 ngaphakathi kwegalaji lomndeni wakhe. Ukuzibulala kwakhe kuye kwaba nemibuzo ephakanyisiwe emhlabeni jikelele.

UJading Bell, esemncane eLa Grande, e-Oregon, wazama ukuzibulala ngokulenga ngaso leso sikhathi kanye nokuxhashazwa okukhulu esikoleni sakhe esiphakeme e-2013. umsebenzi wesikhathi esisodwa wasuswa, uBell wafa esibhedlela sase-OHSU. Ubaba wakhe uJoe Bell waqala ukuzungeza eMelika ukuba adlulise ukwaziswa kodwa uye wabulawa futhi wabulawa yilokho iloli elingaphakathi kulo lonke uhambo lwakhe.

Imithetho

  • Amazwe ambalwa ase-US aseqine umthetho wokubhekana nokuhlukunyezwa kwamandla.
  • Umthethonqubo ovimbela ukubandlulula ngokumelene nabafundi asekelwe ukulingana ngokobulili nokulingana ngokobulili
  • Umthetho owenqabela ukucwaswa ngokumelene nabafundi basekela ukuziphatha ngokocansi ngokumane nje
  • Umthetho owenqabela ukuxhaphazwa kwabafundi kusekela ukuziphatha ngokobulili nokuhlonza ucansi
  • Umthethonqubo wesikole noma ukuziphatha kwabafundi okukhulumayo noma ukucwaswa kwabafundi kugxile ekuhloleni ngokobulili nokuhlonza ngokobulili
  • Umthetho wesikole noma izimiso zokuziphatha eziphathelene nokuhlukumezeka noma ukubandlululwa kwabafundi basekelwa ubulili kuphela
  • Umthetho ovimbela imfundo esekelwe ezikoleni ze-LGBT ngezinkinga ngendlela enhle kakhulu
  • Umthethonqubo ovimbela ukuxhaphazwa ekolishi kodwa uhlu lukhokho lwezigaba zokuvikela
  • Ayikho umthetho obanzi owenqabela ngokuqondile ukuxhaphazwa kwamakholomu
  • Lo mnyango udinga ukukhula. Kungatholakala ukusiza ngokungeza lokho. (Disemba 2010)

Izwe lase-Illinois lithatha umthetho (SB3266) ngoJuni 2010 Okuvimbela ukuxhaphazwa okwamanje njengamakhodi ehlukene ezemfundo emanyuvesi.

EPhilippines, abameli bezama ukubambisana neRiphabhuliki Yomthetho No. 10627, njengenye ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Anti-Bullying Act ye-2013. esekelwe ikakhulukazi Kumthethonqubo ofanayo, ukuxhaphazwa ngokobulili okusekelwe ngokobulili kufakwe njengoba? Noma yisiphi isenzo esihlambalaza noma esingabandakanyi umuntu ngenxa yezizathu zokubona ngokocansi noma ukuhlonza ngokobulili (SOGI)? ).

Amaprosesa asekelwe

Ukusabela ekuthuthukiseni ukuqaphela ubungqingili bobulili obufanayo kanye Namazinga amaningi enkonzo asetshenziselwa ukusiza abesilisa nabesifazane be-LGBT ukuthi babhekane nokusebenzisa kabi kwabo.

Okuthakazelisayo ngaphakathi kwe-United States Kwangathi Kungaba Yakho Ukuthola Iprojekthi Engcono, Ngoba labo abalingiswa nabesilisa nabesifazane be-LGBT badala ama-movie akwa-YouTube abelana ngemilayezo yokulindela ukutholwa kwentsha yobungqingili. I-Safe Schools Coalition inikeza amathuluzi kubafundi bekolishi nabafundisi. I-Egale Canada isebenza nabakhokhi bentela be-LGBT baseCanada.

Umhlahlandlela olandelayo ukhuluma ngezindlela zobulili phakathi kwabantu. Ukuze uthole Izenzo phakathi kwamadoda, vakashela imitholampilo yobulili besondo.

Ukuhunyushwa kukaHadrian no-Antonius

Imikhuba yezocansi imisebenti yebulili emkhatsini wemadvodza Kulala emadvodza lamabili (MSM), kungakhathaliseki kutsi ucabanga ngekwebulili nobe kubuntfwana bobulili. Abalobi balezi zincwadi ze-1948 Kinsey bathi amaphesenti angu-37 ezinhlokweni zawo ahlangene nawo abe nomunye wesilisa ongathandana naye. Ubufakazi bubonisa ukuthi ubulili phakathi kwabesilisa bubikwa emiphenyweni ngenxa yokuzikhethela komphakathi.

Abafana ababili babamba iqhaza ngokuzibulala ngokumelene ne-penises yabo ngokubambisana

Ngokwemlando, ukulala komzimba kuhlotshaniswa ne-MSM eminingi, kodwa ukuthambekela ukungabambi iqhaza emlonyeni wobulili obudala, futhi ungase uthathe iqhaza emlonyeni womlomo, u-frottage noma u-frot, noma ukufisa okufanayo. I-SMS ingabamba iqhaza ezinhlobonhlobo ezahlukene zobulili ngomlomo, isibonelo njenge-fallatio, i-tea-bagging, kanye nama-anglings. Isinqumo se-2011 esivela ku-Journal of Sexual Medicine sathola imiphumela efanayo namadoda ase-US abesilisa ocansini nabesilisa ocansi. Ukumangala umlingani emlonyeni wakho (74.5percent), ucansi lomlomo (72.7percent), futhi nokuhlukanisa ngokushaya indlwabu (68.4percent) yizici ze-3 ezivame ukuhlangenwe nakho, kanye ne-63.2percent yalezi zampula zokuzibika kwe-5 emizimbeni eyisishiyagalombili yokuziphatha ngokocansi ngaphakathi kokuhlangenwe nakho kwabo kokugcina .

Omunye wabesilisa abalala nabo abafana nabafana abathandana nabo bangase baziwa ngoba kakhulu kakhulu, ngokuvamile umuntu angaziwa ngenkathi ephansi, futhi kungenzeka ukuthi abizwe ngokuthi iguquguqukayo. Ukuthakazelisa, ukuphumula, noma kungenzeka ukuhamba nomsebenzi wobulili. Njengoba imizwa inganikezwa yizinzwa eziphelela endaweni yangaphambili, isiphetho singase senziwe ngokusebenzisa ukungena ngomfutho we-prostate cancer gland. Ucwaningo olwenziwa ku-National Survey of Health and Behavior (NSSHB) lucacise ukuthi amadoda amadala azitshela ukuthi aphethe isikhundla sokuvuleka kobulili ngaphakathi kocansi bawo abathola ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi abe nefa elifika e-orgasm njengamadoda amadala abamukela ukungena umsebenzi. Ukuhlola isampula abantu abangashadile ngenkathi ngaphakathi kwe-US bephakamisa ukuthi amanani omkhuhlane afanayo phakathi kwamadoda amadala emhlabeni jikelele. Ngokuqondene nokungahambi kahle ngokobulili, ukuhlola okunye kubonisa, ngoba amaphesenti angu-24 kumaphesenti angu-61 wabesilisa ocansini noma abantu abesilisa nabesilisa ocansi, ukuhlukumeza ngokobulili obudala (okubizwa ngokuthi i-anodyspareunia) kungaba yinto evamile yokuphila ngesikhathi sokulala ngokocansi. Esikhathini sampula enkulu (n = ~ 25,000) kokubili abesilisa abadala base-US abesilisa nabesilisa nabesifazane abadala, cishe amaphesenti angu-86 wabantu abazongena ngaphakathi kobulili babo obudlule bachaza ukungena kulo mcimbi njengokungancinci noma mhlawumbe kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kunzima kangakanani; cishe i-5% iyicacise kakhulu noma ibuhlungu kakhulu.

Umfana ongena ngokuhamba phambili uzoba "phezulu" wakho futhi umfana olamukelayo ngakwesokunxele kungaba "ngezansi"

Imibiko Eqondana nesigameko sobulili esisodwa se-MSM Siye sahlukana namanye amaphesenti, eminyakeni edlule. Inani elikhulu labantu ababandakanyeka ekuziphatheni ngokocansi. Ucwaningo ukuthi omunye wabesilisa uphakamise ukuthi izilinganiso zifana ngokufanayo uma zihlola abesilisa abafuna ukuphazamisa abashade babo kubantu abangase basebenze njengomlingani. Abanye abantu abalala nobulili bacabanga ukuthi ubukhulu babo bubuzwa ngokuhlala nomlingani ngempela ngesikhathi sokulala.

Kukhona ukuhlanganisa. I-Fort ingaba uhlobo lomsebenzi oluzobandakanya ngokushesha ukukhuluma naye. Kuyinto uhlobo frottage. Fort kungaba mnandi kusukela futhi ngesikhathi esifanayo kuvusa izitho zangasese zalabo abashadikazi ngoba lokho engenzi ukukhiqiza ukungqubuzana okwanelisayo ngokuphambene ne-frenulum guts iphakheji phezu phansi wonke umuntu ngamunye penile, kuphela ngaphansi ukuvota urinary (inyamaus) ekhanda lika-penis (glans penis). Ubulili namanje kusekhona olunye uhlobo lobulili olungenziwa phakathi kwe-MSM. Ukufaka (ukufakwa komuntu oyedwa kumuntu wesigqila somunye umuntu) kungenziwa futhi.

Izindawo zokulala zocansi zingenziwa. Ukuhlaziywa kwe-1 kwe-UK Nabaphenduli be-US, ngisho nabantu abacwaningi abathandana nabangqingili babika isitayela sezinja, isithunywa sevangeli, i-6 9, isilwane somlomo (kule ndlela) kwakuyizindawo zabo zobulili ezizithandayo. I-MSM ingakwazi ukufaka iqhaza ku-BDSM noma ukusebenzisa ama-sextoys. I-poll yommeli kazwelonke eyenziwa e-Australia ngo-2001 kuya ku-2002 ithole ukuthi, kusukela emasontweni angu-12 ngaphambi kwe-poll, i-4.4percent yabesilisa abangama-homosexual abadala kanye ne-14.2percent yamadoda ebulili abathandanayo abenza izenzo zobulili ezihlobene ne-BDSM, kanye ne-19.2percent yama-gaydi abantu abadala I-36.4percent yamadoda wezocansi abesilisa abesilisa ocansini abesetshenziswa. I-poll ye-questionnaires-based based around the behavior of students in college yaseMelika iphawula ngamaphesenti angu-XNUM abesilisa abesilisa ocansini nabesilisa nabangqingili abanolwazi lokuhlangenwe nakho kanye nokuphambanisa ngenxa yokuba ngumtholampilo. Phakathi kwabafundi bezidakamizwa eNyakatho Melika, amaphesenti angu-24 wabantu abadala abadala abangqingili kanye namaphesenti angu-6 abesilisa abadala abesilisa abadala babika ukuthi bathola ubuhlungu ngenxa yenjabulo yezocansi, kanye namaphesenti angu-17 wabantu abadala abadala abangqingili kanye namaphesenti angu-5 wabesilisa abesilisa abathintekayo ababhalisa ukuvakashela lolu hlelo. Ngokusho kwe-in-line ye-on-line yilabo abesilisa abadala abaku-9 abazisho ukuthi bangama-gay noma ama-ideology, i-25,000percent isetshenziselwe ukudlidliza. Amadoda amaningi asebenzise isidlidliza ekusetshenzisweni kokugcina okubikiwe ngesikhathi sokuthomba (49.8percent). Ngemuva kokusetshenziselwa ukuxhumana okubanzi, ama-vibrator ayefakwe emisebenzini yezocansi (86.2percent) kanye nocansi (65.9percent).

Isampula yocwaningo engashadile Abesilisa nabesifazane base-US basikisela ukuthi Amanothi omgogodla otholakala ngumhlobo obonakalayo afana phakathi kwamadoda amadala ngokuphathelene nobulili. Ukucwaninga kubonisa ukuthi i-MSM ifinyelele kakhulu ekufinyeleleni i-orgasm futhi iphinde ibone ubulili ngempela noma eyanelisayo ngendlela eqinisayo ngokusebenzisa umlingani noma omunye umuntu abathanda kakhulu. Okufanayo kutholakale esampula emele ama-US avela ubuhlungu be-douleur (9 1% ubulili obufanayo).

Ukuzibandakanya kwezocansi Ukusebenzisa abesilisa be-cisgender, ubulili bungabandakanya ukukhuliswa kwe-anus yabo.

Izingozi zezempilo

Inani lezifo ezithathelwana ngocansi (I-STIs) lingabuka kusuka kumsebenzi. Ephasini lonke, cishe amaphesenti angu-5 - 10 wegciwane lesandulela ngculazi kubangelwa amadoda abesilisa ocansini abesilisa abadala. Emazweni amaningi aseNtshonalanga ukutheleleka ngegciwane lesandulela ngculaza kuye kwahanjiswa amadoda amaningi ocansini namadoda uma kuqhathaniswa nanoma iyiphi indlela yokudlulisela phambili. E-United States, abantu abesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabangqingili babhalisela amaphesenti angu-54 ezinkampanini ze-HIV / AIDS namaphesenti angu-67 yophenyo ku-2014. Kulabo bantu abangu-5,164 abathintekayo abane-HIV e-UK ku-20-16, amaphesenti angu-54 angabafana abesilisa nabangqingili noma abangqingili. Lesi sihloko sokufundisa sinciphisa eLondon njengoba kuchazwe yi-Public Health England ku-20 17. Thintana ithenda ye-syphilis kokubili i-anus, eduze kwe-eyebrow, noma indawo yangaphambili. Emuva ku-2006, amaphesenti angu-XNUM kwalezo zimo e-United States aphelile. Ukwenyuka kokusabalalisa kwe-syphilis phakathi kwe-MSM kubonwe kwamanye amazwe amaningi. I-Syphilis ithuthukisa amazinga okungcoliswa kwe-HIV futhi ngokufanayo, futhi ngenxa yalokho i-poll ngenkathi ngaphakathi e-US ithola ukuthi ingxenye ye-MSM ene-syphilis ine-HIV. Eminye imibiko yesayense esebenzisa ukuhlolwa kwenzuzo eye yabonisa ukwanda okunjalo kungase kuthiwe yizinga eliphezulu eliphezulu lobulili besebenzisa ikhondomu enye ye-MSM, kodwa okungenani ubuncane bokutadisha esebenzayo nesampula emele izwe lonke kuvule amazinga okusebenzisa ikhondomu phakathi kwe-MSM yande, inganciphisi kodwa eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule, futhi kuye kwaba nokunciphisa okukhulu emvuthweni wezocansi eziphathekayo ngaphakathi kwe-adventure yezocansi ezedlule ze-MSM ematasa.

Njengokhetho lwe-US, i-HIV, i-warts, ne-syphilis yizo zombili eziphakathi kwamadoda abhekana nocansi nabesilisa (MSM) Mayelana neFlip Side, i-Herpes ivame kakhulu phakathi kwe-MSM ngaphandle kwe-MSW. I-Chlamydia, umuntu u-Gonorrhea, igciwane le-Papilloma, ne-lice aziqapheli i-gap Amakilasi amabili.

Ukuzibandakanya ngokocansi kungokwakhe ubulili obuqaphelayo. Ubulili ngabanye bungase buguquke kulokhu, noma bukwazi ukuzihlanganisa nobulili ekuseni. Yonke imiphakathi inesidingo samakilasi ezocansi angase abe yisisekelo sokudala ukuhlonishwa komunye umuntu ngokuphathelene. Ngezici eziningi, kukhona ukuhlukana okulula phakathi kwezici zocansi ezinikezwe abesifazane nabesilisa, ubulili ukuthi iningi labesilisa nabesifazane linamathele futhi elinamathemba obukhulu besilisa nabesifazane kuzo zonke izici zobungqingili nobulili: ubulili obuphilayo, ubunikazi, nokusho kobulili. Abanye abantu ngokuvamile abaqapheli ukuthi basebenzise zonke ezinye izakhi zobulili ezithathwa ngokobulili babo abaningana balaba bantu abangekho kanambambili, ubulili bobulili noma i-transgender. Ungathola iningi lemiphakathi enezinhlobo zobulili.

Era ezintathu. Ngemuva kokuvame ukudala ukuhlonza kobulili oluyinhloko Era mayelana namaningana, lizama ukwabela lona, ​​futhi kunzima ukuthuthukisa kungabangela ucansi we-sex dysphoria. Zombili izici zomphakathi neziphilayo zikhonjiswa ukuthi zithinte ukudala kwayo.

Ubudala bokudalwa

Kukhona imibono eminingi mayelana nokuziphatha kobulili Izinhlobo zabantu, futhi ukuhlaziya i-niche kunzima kakhulu njengoba ukulahlekelwa kwezingane kwegama elifanayo kudinga abaphenyi ukuba bakhe izindawo ngokufakaza okuqondile. UJohn Money uhlongoze ukuthi izingane zingase zikwazi ukuqonda, futhi zibuye zixhumane nokubambisana kobulili, njengasendulo njengamaviki angu-18 kuma-2 amashumi eminyaka; ULawrence Kohlberg uqinisekisa ukuthi ukuziphatha ngokocansi akuhlungi kuze kuphele iminyaka .Kuvunyelwene ukuthi iminyaka imisa ukucaciswa kobulili. Ngaleso sikhathi, izingane zingakha izitatimende zebhizinisi ngocansi bazo futhi zivame ukunquma ngamathoyizi kanye nemisebenzi ekholelwa ukuthi kufanelekile ngokobulili babo njengokwesibonelo umdwebo namadonki wabesifazane, kanye negesi kanye nezindlu zokuhlala zabafana), ngokulandelana, nakuba ngokuvamile bengakaqapheli ngokuphelele imiphumela yocansi. Ngemuva kokuhlonza ubulili beminyaka yobudala kunzima ukuthuthukisa futhi uzama ukukwabela lokho kungabangela ubulili besifo socansi. Ukulungiswa komuntu ngokobulili kuyaqhubeka ku-adult hood, futhi kuya eminyakeni engamashumi amabili ubudala.

UMartin kanye noRuble babhekana nale nqubo yokukhula Njengoba izigaba ezintathu: (intshi) njengabantwana abancane nabangaphambi kokufunda esikoleni, izingane zithola mayelana nezici ezichazwe, ezingabalwa izici zobulili; (amabili) ngaphezulu kweminyaka engu-5, i-5 - amashumi eminyaka, ukuhlangana komuntu kuhlangene futhi kuyaqina; (I-3) kamuva ukuthi "ukuphakama kokuqina," ukukhiqiza komzimba kuveza futhi izindima zobulili ezichazwe ngokulandelana. "UBarbara Newman uhlukanisa izicucu ezine ezihlukene: (1) eqonda umbono wezocansi, (I-2) ehlukana nabahlobo, futhi (3) okwenza ubulili buzwakale.

Ngokuhambisana nezinhlangano ze-UN, izingxoxo zokufundisa ngokobulili ziphakamisa ulwazi ezifana nesibonelo sobulili nokulingana ngokocansi.

Imvelo ngokumelene nokunakekelwa

Ngisho noma ukudalulwa kobulili akuzona izici eziziwayo kuboniswa njengokuthinta ukuziphendukela kwayo. Ngokucacile, iphuzu elixhomeke kakhulu kulokhu kwentsha (izici zemvelo) ngokubhekisana nezinhlangothi eziphilayo (okuyizinto eziphilayo) ngokuqinisekile ukuphikisana okuqhubekayo kwengqondo, okubizwa nangokuthi "imvelo ngokumelene nokukhulelwa". Zombili izici zikholelwa ukuthi zidlala isikhundla esibalulekile. Yakha amanani we-hormone pre-android. Ngenkathi ukuziphatha ngokocansi kufakwe ngaphezu kokuthonywa yi-makeup, akusho ukuthi kunqunywe yi-inflexibly yiyo.

Ukuhluka kwezenhlalo Okungahle kuthinte u-omsini wezocansi kuhlanganisa imibono ebona imisebenzi yezocansi ehanjiswa ngumlingani kanye nezingane, izibalo zamandla, ucingo oluningi kanye nabanye abantu abanamandla ekuphileni komntwana. Lapho izingane zikhuliswe ngabantu abaningi abambelela emisebenzini ephathelene nobulili, ngempela baye bathambekele kakhudlwana ukwenza isitayela esifanayo, bafanise ukuhlukaniswa kobulili nabo bonke imizila yesimo esivumelana nesicansi. Ulimi olwengezelayo ludlala ingxenye yabantwana, ngenkathi ufunda isilulumagama nje kuphela, sibone ukuthi ungahlukanisa kanjani amandla futhi ulungise ukuziphatha kwabo kuzo zonke lezi zindima ezichazwe ngaphambilini. I-hypothesis yokufunda emphakathini ibonisa ukuthi abantwana bayakhula nobulili babo ngokukopisha nokubona ukuziphatha okuphathelene nobulili, futhi bavuzwa noma bahlawuliswa ngenxa yokuziphatha ngale ndlela, i-ergo ehlala ifakwe ngabantu ababafaka ngokuzama ukulingisa bese behamba nabo.

Isibonelo esithandwayo kusukela enkulumweni ye-Character Versus ukukhulisa ngumcimbi kaDavid Reimer, noma ubizwa ngokuthi "uJohn / Joan." Njengomntwana, uReimer wabona ukusoka, elahla isisu sakhe. Isazi sezinzwa uJohn Money, umama kababa kaReimer ukuba amphakamise U-Reimer wakhuphuka njengenkosikazi, ezungezwe ngamathoyizi wesifazane nokugqoke izingubo zentombazane, kodwa akazange akholwe njengowesifazane. Uthe utshele ukuthi uzalwe ngamadoda angama-genitalia Ngemva kokuzama ukubulala ngesikhathi se-13. inkolelo yokuthi isayensi yezinkanyezi ayifuni lutho olubanzi ngokuphathelene nobulili noma ukuziphatha ngokocansi.

Izinto Eziphilayo

Eziningi zokubeletha ezinjengezakhi zofuzo namaHormones, zingathinta ubulili bobulili. Umqondo we-Bio Chemical wokuzibandakanya ngokocansi usho ukuthi abantu bathola ubulili bobulili ngezikhathi ezinjalo ngokuphambene nokuhlelwa komphakathi.

Imiphumela iyinkimbinkimbi; Ukunqunywa kocansi-ukuhlukanisa amaHormones kudala kusukela esikhathini esincane sokukhula komntwana, kanti futhi lapho inani le-horrenone le-adrenal lishintshiwe, ukuthuthukiswa kwe-phenotype kungashintshwa futhi, kanye nesimo sengqondo somqondo wengqondo ngokubhekene nobulili obulodwa kungase kungahambisani kahle ifa eliyilungu le-embryo noma izitho zalo zangaphandle zokuzala.

Amahomori angathonya ukuhlukahluka phakathi kwamadoda 'nabesifazane'

Abantu base-Intersex

Inhlolovo yalolu cwaningo kusuka ku-1955 - 2, i-000 ibonisa ukuthi ngaphezu kuka-1 kubantu abangamakhulu angaba nesici se-intersex. Ukuhlukahluka kwe-intersex kungase kube nzima ukwenza umsebenzi wezocansi futhi lokhu kungenzeka kungenzeka ukuthi akuhambisani nayo yonke i-id yengane yengane. Ukuqinisa ukuhanjiswa kobulili ngenkathi i-hormonal and yokuhlinzwa iyophula amalungelo omthetho womuntu ngamunye.

Ucwaningo lwe-2005 mayelana nemiphumela yezocansi ye-Female-raised 46, amadoda e-XY asebenzisa i-erectile i-dysfunction agenesis, i-cloacae exstrophy yezinso zezinso noma abesilisa, athole ukuthi amaphesenti angu-XNUM ezindaweni zabo zokuhlaziywa bephila njengabesifazane, esikhundleni sama-78 amaphesenti bakhetha ukuqala ukushintsha kobulili emgqeni wamadoda ngezocansi zabo zofuzo.

Iphephandaba lokuhlola le-2012 lithole ukuthi libandakanya i-8.5percent kanye namaphesenti angu-XNUM Kubantu abanezinhlobo ze-intersex ezihlotshaniswa ngokocansi. Ukuhlola kwezenhlalakahle e-Australia, umbuso usebenzisa ingxenye yesithathu yeqembu lobulili, ubonisa ukuthi amaphesenti angu-20 wabantu abazalwa ngamakhono okulala ocansini atypical athathe "X" noma "enye" ​​enye indlela, kanti amaphesenti angu-19 angamantombazane, ama-52 amaphesenti amakhulu abantu abadala, kanye namaphesenti angu-23 ahlukumezayo. Lapho efika, amaphesenti angu-6 wamadoda avela ekuhlaziyweni ahanjelwe abesifazana, kanti amaphesenti angu-52 ayengumuntu othunyelwe.

Ucwaningo olwenziwa nguReiner & Gearhart lunikeza ukuqonda okunye okungenzeka uma izingane ezincane ezine-cloacal exstrophy zinikezwa amantombazane nabesifazane abandayo, ngokusekelwe 'kwenqubomgomo yobulili enhle' eyenziwe nguJohn Money: kusibonelo se-14 kiddies, ukulandelela okubandakanya iminyaka eyi-5 kuya ku-1 2 yembula ukuthi okuyisishiyagalombili kulaba abathintekayo njengogogo nomkhulu, futhi yilowo nalowo izihloko zaba nezithakazelo zomuntu ezijwayelekile kanye nezengqondo, eziletha usizo kulokuphikisana kwazo ukuthi izici eziphathelene nezithandani zithinta ukulingana ngokobulili nokuziphatha komuntu ngamunye wobusha.

Izimbangela zokuziphatha ngokobulili nokudakwa ngokweqile

Inombolo yezifundo ziye zacwaninga ukuthi ngabe kukhona ukuxhumeka koxhumano phakathi kobulili obunqunu noma obunqamulelayo kanye nezici. Imibiko iboniswe kulokho okuhloswe ngokuqondile ngokusebenzisa ubulili babo nokuthi izakhiwo zobuchopho zesifo socansi ezivela kubantu abathandanayo basuke ziguqulwa ngokuqondile ncamashi ngokuhambisana ngqo nobulili babo bokuzalwa. Kwamanye, i-nucleus yebhedi ye-stria terminals noma i-BSTc (ingxenye yalesi sigcawu esisebuchosheni bobuchopho bayo esithonywa yi-androgens esencane kakhulu) yamantombazane amantombazane inqhathaniswa nobulili besifazane nobufana besilisa. Izikhala ezifanayo zengqondo ziyabonakala phakathi kwabesilisa abesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabangqingili, futhi phakathi kwabesifazane abathandana nabo besilisa nabesifazane. Okunye ukuhlaziya kusho ukuthi ukuziphatha ngokobulili kungaba nengxenye yefa.

Ucwaningo lufakazela ukuthi amahomoni akhuthaza ukuhlukaniswa ngo-utero anomthelela ku-futhi aphakamisa ukuvunywa kocansi. Amanani alabo besifazane noma abesilisa abama-Hormone phakathi kwendoda noma owesifazane angase abe nomphumela Angalingani nesilinganiso salolubulili obanikezwa kusasa, nangomunye umuntu obhekene nokuzibonakalisa njengobobulili babo obutholakala.

Izingxenye zomphakathi nezemvelo

(Okthoba 2010) (Funda ngokumane nje futhi uma uqeda lesi sici esicacile sezinto ezibonakalayo)

Ku-1955, uJohn cash watusa ukuthi ukuhlukaniswa ngocansi kwakuyi-Malleable futhi kuncike ekutheni i-kid encane ivuselelwe ebusheni njengowesifazane. Imfundiso yenkokhelo iye yahlukaniswa, noma kunjalo, abafundi banamanje ukubuyekezwa umphumela wezinguquko zeqembu lomphakathi. ngaphakathi kwamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye, izinhlangothi ezinjengokuntuleka kukababa, umama ofuna ingane, noma mhlawumbe imikhuba yokuqinisa abazali iboniswe njengempembelelo; ngisho nemibono eyengeziwe yemifashini ebonisa ukuthi ukubeletha kwengqondo komzali ingase ithinte ingxenye yentuthuko yokulingana ngokobulili ithole izimpawu ezibonisa ukuthi yizo zobulili, zinezihloko ze-2004 eziphawula ukuthi "ubufakazi obuqinile bokubaluleka kokubambisana kwezenhlalakahle ezingekho emphakathini kuyasweleka." Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2008 kwabeka amantombazane nabantwana bezingane akudalwanga lutho lwezinkinga.

Kukhonjisiwe ukuthi izimo zengqondo zalezi zingane kodwa izibonakaliso zibizwa ngokuthi, ukuhlonza ingane ngokocansi kungase kuthinte.

Isikhungo sendima zobulili

Abazali beHlabathi yezeMpilo Yezwe abakhuthazi ukulinganisa ubulili ngesilinganiso sendawo yesigcawu esithile esithandwayo ukuba babe nezingane ezinombono wokuthi isilinganiso sendawo senziwe ngokuqinile futhi sisebenza ngokuqinile emsebenzini wezocansi nokulingana ngokocansi. Izincwadi zamuva zikhomba ukuthi ukuthambekela kokuzibandakanya kobulili kanye nezindima, njengoba ukuhlolwa kwesayensi kwezinywana ezifana namadoda, besifazane, noma ukungakhethi kubonisa ukuthi ikhodi yamammy ne-pop ngendlela ehlukahlukene kakhulu njengezikhwama zamakhishi ezingakhethi kunokuba yiziqhingi ngokuphelele kodwa u-Emily U-Kane wathola ukuthi iningi labadala babonisa ububele, ngaphandle kwezimpendulo eziza ezintweni, emisebenzini, noma emicatsheni eyayicatshangwa ukuthi iyisifazana, i-assurance, njengokwesibonelo njengamakhono amakhono. Ukuhlaziywa kunconywe ukuthi ama-oldsters angenakubalwa enza umzamo wokucacisa ubulili kubantwana bawo ngendlela ethile ukuthi izindawo ezinganeni ezisuke zingena emndenini, '' nokusebenzisa inkulumo ka Kane ethi "umsebenzi wokugcinwa komngcele womzali ubonakala emadodaneni umelela isithiyo esibalulekile ekunciphiseni ukukhetha abafana, ukuhlukanisa abafana besifazane, imisebenzi yokuqhathanisa ekhonjiswe njengowesifazane kubafana nabesifazane, ngakho-ke kuqinisa umehluko wobulili kanye ne-hetero normativity. "

Ababelethi abanomusa ngomfana wakhe noma owesifazane wakhe uma echaza ubulili besonto, aze azalwe ngempela. ingane ifika ezifisweni, imidlalo, imidlalo, kanye negama elimbalwa. Uma ingane yakho inqume ukuthi ubulili buyinqunyiwe, kubonakala ukuthi izingane ziphinde zenziwe kabusha kuze kube manje njengokwesifazana noma kumuntu ongapheliyo, okufanisa nomuntu noma isigamu sesini sobulili esichazwe yizingane zakudala.

Uma ucabanga ngesigaba sabazali bomphakathi kanye nezomnotho, imibhangqwana ephansi, kodwa ephakathi, "abanamakhono" ngokuvamile ekhuluma ngokuhlukana kwabasebenzi abaSebenzi ku-Nursing banomqondo wokulingana.

Izincazelo

Kuze kube yilolu suku bajwayele ukusetshenzwa ngaleyo ndlela, kanti abafundi abaningi basebenzisa leli gama ukuze bafune iseluleko ngokuzibandakanya kwezocansi kanye namacembu okuzibandakanya ngokocansi gay, abesilisa abashadile nabesilisa nabesifazane.

Izincwadi zokuqala zezokwelapha

Ekupheleni kwesikhathi-izincwadi zezokwelapha ze-19th-century, amantombazane iNhlangano Yezwe YezeMpilo ekhethwe ukuba angahambisani nezindima zabo ezilindelekile zobulili abizwa ngokuthi "ukungenwa", nokuthi baboniswa njengababambisana nentshisekelo yobuhlengikazi kolwazi nasekufundeni, futhi "bangathandi futhi ngezinye izikhathi ukukhubazeka ukugqugquzela izinsizakusebenza. "Kuzo zonke izinyanga zomphakathi, odokotela bacela ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha emantombazaneni nasebancane, lokho kwakusho ukuthi ukuziphatha kobulili okwakungeyona ingxenye yendlela evamile kuzobekwa icala futhi kulungiswe. ukuphoqa abasebasha ekusebenzeni kwabo "okunembile" ngokobulili futhi ngaleyo ndlela banciphise inani lentsha iNational Health Organization yaba i-transgender.

Imibono kaFreud noJung

Ku-1905, udokotela wezobuchopho wanikeza umbono wakhe we-ontogenesis ku-3 Essays ekucatshangweni kobulili, enikeza ubufakazi bokuthi engxenyeni yesandulela abasha abahlukanisi phakathi kwezesondo, kodwa bacabanga ukuthi abadala bakudala banamandla okulingana namandla okukhiqiza. Ngalesi sizathu, wafakazela ukuthi ukuziphatha ngokobulili kwakuyisimo sokuqala ngokocansi ukuthi umsebenzi wobulili wawubangelwa ukucindezelwa kulo lonke isigaba, ngaleyo njongo ubunye bubonakala. ngokuhambisana neurologist, kulokhu kulesi sigaba, abasha bahlakulela ukuhlangana nabahlengikazi bezokwelapha kunoma yikuphi lapho babecabanga khona ngokocansi ngomzali okushiwo ukuthi ubulili obuhlukile kanye nomzwelo womzali wabhekisela ukuthi ubulili obulinganayo, futhi lo mzwelo wabuye waqala ukudluliselwa (ongazi lutho) ) ukukhonjwa nomzali ohlakisayo weWorld Health Organization ngamunye ubeka isibonelo sokubambisana nezifiso zobulili futhi kunengozi yokugxilisa amandla emntanami ukuvuselela izifiso zobulili. Ku-1913, uJung wafaka isicoco se-Electra njengoba wonke umuntu ekholelwa ukuthi ukuhlukana kwabantu abesilisa abahlulekile ukuqamba amanga ekuqaleni ukuphila kwengqondo, okuyinto i-neurologist ehluleka ukunikeza incazelo eyanele kumntwana wesifazane (uFreud wenqaba lesi siphakamiso).

Ama-1950 nama-Sixties ayisithupha

Phakathi neMinyaka Engamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye Namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye Nama-60, izazi zengqondo zaqala ukufunda ukuthuthukiswa ngokobulili ezincane ezisencane, okuyingxenye ekuzameni ukuthi imvelaphi yobungqingili (okwakubhekwa njengengqondo ngaleso sikhathi). Ku-1958, ucwaningo lwabantu ngabanye lwasungulwa emaphakathi we-UCLA ukuze kuhlolwe abantu abesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa abesilisa nabesifazane. u-head-shirker uHenry M. Robert Stroller waveza okunye okutholwe yile phrojekthi encwadini yakhe ethi Sex and Gender: Uma kwenzeka uMasculinity ne-muliebrity (1968). uhlangene ngokuzibandakanya ngokuletha igama lomuntu ku-International Psychotherapy Congress enhloko-dolobha yaseSweden, uMbuso waseSweden ku-1963. ososayensi womsebenzi uJohn cash wayeyinto ehlangene phakathi nokuthuthukiswa kwezinkolelo zokuqala zabantu. Umsebenzi wakhe kwiKliniki ye-Johns Hopkins Medical School (eyasungulwa ku-1965) ehlanganiswa kakhulu e-Nursing yokuhlanganiswa kwemibono yomuntu ngamunye, ekhombisa ukuthi, kuze kube sesikhathini esinqunyiwe, ukuhluka komuntu kubonakala kusetshenziselwa uketshezi njalo. Incwadi yakhe Indoda nentombazane, Boy kanye nowesifazane (1972) yavame ukusetshenziswa kabanzi njengencwadi yenyuvesi, nakuba iningi lezimfundiso zeMali kusukela ngaleso sikhathi liphikisiwe.

Ukubukwa kukaButler

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka engamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye, uJudith waqala ukufundisa ngokubaluleka komuntu, futhi ngo-1990, wachaza uGender Trouble: U-Feminism kanye nokuchithwa kwe-Identity, wethula ukwakheka kobulili nokulinganisa ukuthi ubulili bobulili obulodwa nobulili wadala.

Ukubuka okwamanje

Lesi sigaba sifisa ukucaphuna okunye okuqinisekisiwe. Sicela uthuthukise lo mbhalo ngokungeza izikhala emithonjeni enokwethenjelwa. Izinto ezingasetshenziswanga nazo zingahle zibe yinselele futhi zisuswe. (Novemba 2015) (Funda noma kunjalo ukuze ususe lo mlayezo wesibonelo)

Inkambu yokwelapha

Njengengxenye ye-2018, kunokunye ukuguqulwa kokubukwa kwemibono kanye nokungafani okusha mayelana nokubonga okulula ukukhipha ukungafani kobulili. Odokotela bezokwelapha, ngokufanayo njengobudlelwane ku-Nursing kukhula okwenyuka kwama-fogeys, ngokuvamile akusekeli noma bakholelwa umcabango wokuguqulwa kwezokwelashwa, okwamanje kunqatshelwe ukungahloniphi futhi kungabi namsebenzi. Ngaphakathi kweBrithani enkulu, zonke izidakamizwa ezinkulu nezifo zengqondo, ngokufanayo ngenxa ye-NHS, seziphelile ukuthi ukuguqulwa kokunakekelwa kwezokwelapha 'ukulungisa' ukuziphatha ngokocansi kuyingozi futhi umsebenzi wenziwa ukwandisa lesi sikhundla ukuze ufake into eyodwa.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kunezilinganiso ezilinganayo namanje ezihlukahlukene zemitholampilo I-World Health Organization isakholelwa ukuthi kumele kube nokungenelela kwabasilisa abangashadile besifazane. Bakholelwa ukuthi amathoyizi kanye namageyimu athile okubhekene nobulili angakhuthaza abasha ukuthi baziphathe ezinkambweni zabo zobulili zasendulo.

Abantu abathintekayo be-Transsexual ngokuvamile bafuna ukukhuthazelela ukuhlinzeka ngokomzimba ukudala izici zabo zobulili eziyinhloko, izici eziyisibili, noma kokubili, ngenxa yokuthi bazizwa bezohamba ngokukhululekile nge-crotch ehluke ngokuphelele. lokhu kungafaka ukukhishwa kwamalungu, amaconsi noma amabele, noma ukucabanga kwelungu, ukudoba noma amabele. esikhathini esedlule, ukuhlinzekwa ngesondo ngocansi kwenzelwe ezinganeni ze-World Health Organisation isilinganiso esivela nge-crotch engaqondakali. Kodwa-ke, umbono wezokwelapha wamanje unamandla ngokumelene nale nqubo, njengoba abantu abadala abadala sebezisole ngokuthi lezi zikhetho zenzelwe zona ngesikhathi sokuzalwa. Namuhla, ukuhlinzwa kwesabelo socansi kuyenziwa kulabo abathanda ukushintshwa ngakho ngokocansi lwabo lwe-anatomical lungavumelana nomuntu ngamunye.

Kithina, bekubekwe phansi ngaphansi koMthetho Wokunakekelwa Okunengqondo ukuthi ukushintshaniswa komshuwalense kuzoba nokuguquguquka kokuqoqa imininingwane yabantu ngokuqondene nomuntu kanye nokuzibandakanya ngokobulili ngokusebenzisa imibuzo ekhona, ukusiza abenzi benqubomgomo ukuba bahloniphe izidingo zomphakathi we-LGBT.

Ukungaxilani ngokobulili nokukhathazeka komuntu siqu

Ukungaxilisi ngokobulili (okubizwa ngaphambili ngokuthi "izifo zobunikazi bezocansi" noma i-GID ngaphakathi kwe-DSM) ukuthi ukuhlonza ngokusemthethweni abantu ngabanye abaMnyango WezeMpilo wezeMpilo kubalulekile ukungavumelani (ukunganeliseki) nobulili abanikezwa ngesikhathi sokuzalwa kanye / noma izindima zobulili ezihlobene naleso sondo : "Ekuguleni kobulili, kukhona ukuhlukana phakathi kobulili obufanayo obufanayo bomuntu wesilisa ongaphandle njengendlela yokusebenza ngengqondo yomuntu wesifazane njengomuntu wesifazane noma wesifazane" I-Diagnostic futhi isetshenzisiwe isifundo seMibhalo yezinkinga zengqondo (i-302.85) iqukethe amazinga ayisihlanu kumele kufinyelelwe ngaphambi koMxhumanisi ekuhlaziyweni kobuhlengikazi bokugula komuntu siqu kungenziwa ukwenziwa kwefektri, futhi ngokuhambisana nokugula lokhu kuvame ukubhekene nokuphenywa okukhethekile okubhekene nesikhathi, njengokugula kwesifo sobulili ezinganeni (ngoba i-World Health Organisation ikhuthazelela ukuhlukunyezwa ngokobulili) .

I-Idea ye-identity identity ngokobulili ivela ku-Diagnostic Futhi isebenzise izibalo zeMatric Manual of Mental Disorders ngokwehlukile kwayo yesithathu, i-DSM-III (1980), ngohlobo lwemibuzo emibili yezokwelapha ngesifo socansi: isifo sobulili sobusha (GIDC), ngaphandle kwesimo (intsha kanye nabantu abadala). Ukubuyekezwa kwe-1987 yale ncwajana, ngokubambisana '' i-DSM-III-R, ehlanganisiwe ehlanganisiwe ekuqokweni kobuhlengikazi: ukugula kwesifo sobulili sokukhula nokukhethwa kwentsha. Lokhu kukhonjelwa kokugcina kwakungu-1st esusiwe ngaphakathi kwesinye isilungiso, '' i-DSM-IV (1994), eyabuye yawa i-GIDC futhi isimo se-joint joint to the identification entsha yokugula komuntu siqu.I-2013, i-DSM-5 ebizwa ngokuthi ukungaxilisi ngokocansi futhi ibukeze incazelo yakhe siqu.

Abalobi bephephandaba le-2005 baphikisa ukuhlukaniswa kwezinkinga zobunikazi ezibangelwa ukucabanga kwengqondo. I-DSM Improgrades ingase ibe khona manje njengamanje idalwe kwisisekelo uma amaqembu ephikisana nokuqeda ubulili. Lokhu kuqhubeka nokuphikisana nokuPhepha okuPhezulu kokunakekelwa kwabaNakekeli bezengqondo kuvumelana nokulandela zonke izigaba ze-DSM.

Imithetho yomhlaba wonke yamalungelo abantu

Izimiso ze-Yogyakarta, irekhodi ngezikhathi ezithile isimiso somthethosisekelo wamalungelo omhlaba wonke, sihlinzekela ngencazelo ecacile yobunikazi njengobangelwa yilowo nalowo umuntu obonakala ngokujulile ngaphakathi nokubhekisela kobulili, okungenzeka noma kungahambisani nayo yonke ubulili obunikezwa kusasa, njengesibonelo, ukuqwashisa abantu nge-bod yabo (okungase kuhileleke, kufanele kuthathwe ngesandla, ukuguqulwa kwesimo somzimba noma indima ngezindlela zokwelapha, zokuhlinzwa noma ezihlukahlukene) ngaphandle kokubhekisela kocansi, njengengubo yokugqoka , ikheli kanye nobuciko. Umthetho wesithathu uthi "Ukuzichaza komuntu ngamunye kubalulekile ekuziphatheni kwabo futhi kuyisinye sezici eziyisisekelo zokuzikhethela, isithunzi nenkululeko futhi ngaphezu kwalokho Isimiso seshumi nesishiyagalolunye sithi" Noma ngabe yiziphi izigaba eziphambene nalokho, Ukuzibandakanya ngokocansi kanye nokuzikhethela komuntu siqu, akuzona, futhi ngokwabo, izimo zezokwelapha futhi akufanele baphathwe, baphulukiswe noma baphonswe. "Ngenxa yesimiso sangempela," Izichasiselo Zomthetho Ezimisweni ZaseYogyakarta "zathola ukuthi" Ubunikazi obunikazi okungafani nalokho okwabiwa ngesikhathi sokuzalwa, noma ukukhulunywa ngokobulili enqenqenqemeni, kuthathwa njengohlobo lwesimo sengqondo. I-pathologization of distinction ine-LED kubantu abancane ngokobulili-abahlukumeza ngokobulili kanye nezinsana ezigcinwe ezisekelweni ezingokwengqondo, futhi zenziwa ngamasu okugwema - kanye ne-electroshock - njengokuthi 'uphulukise'. "I" Yogyakarta Principles in Action "ithi" kubaluleke kakhulu ukuqaphela ukuthi nakuba 'ukuziphatha ngokobulili' kungakabonakali njengengqondo yengqondo emazweni amaningana, 'ukuhlonza ubulili' noma 'isimo sobulili' ngokuvamile kuhlala kucatshangelwa. "Lezi zimiso zathintele isimemezelo seZizwe Ezihlangene mayelana nokuzibandakanya ngokocansi nokuzibandakanya ngokobulili Ku-2015, ukuhlonza ngocansi kwakuyikhotho yeNkantolo Ephakeme kanti ngezikhathi esasibizwa ngazo ngokuthi u-Oberg zawela ku-Hodges kulo lonke lo mbunyano zivalwe phakathi kwabesifazane nabesilisa.

Ubunikazi obungabonasi bobulili

Imiphakathi embalwa, kanti abanye bethu abakheli ubulili njenge-A kanambambili nomaphi lapho wonke umuntu engaba ngumfana noma owesifazane, noma mhlawumbe mhlawumbe indoda noma mhlawumbe owesifazane. Gwema ngaphansi kwezihlinzeko ezingezona zobuningi noma mhlawumbe ubulili. Eminye imiphakathi inezindima ezikhethekile zobulili ezingase zihluke "kumuntu" no "wesifazane." kule ndawo yabizwa ngokuthi ama-sexes wesithathu.

Fafafafine

Kweminye imiphakathi yasePolynesia, ngisho nefafafa endaweni yendawo ekhonjelwa ukuba yocansi. Bangabantu abesilisa ngempela, kodwa bembethe izingubo futhi benze okuthile ngesikhathi sefeshini ebizwa ngokuthi owesifazane. Njengoba kuchazwa yiTamasailau Sua'ali'I (bheka izikhombisi), fafafine eSamoa ubuncane beyunithi yendawo ngokuvamile ngokuvamile engakwazi ukuzala. Kuhunyushwe cishe, i-fafafafine isho ukuthi "kusukela kwimodi yesifazane"

Hijras

Emiphakathini ethile ye-Asia, i-hijra ithathwa njengomuntu noma intombazane. Abambalwa bangabesifazane, nakuba abaningi baningi noma besilisa. Umsebenzi wezocansi ukhiwa yi-Even hijra, yize ngokuvamile bengakujabuli kahle ukuvunyelwa kanye nokuhlonishwa kusukela abesifazane nabesilisa emiphakathini yabo. Bayakwazi ukuqhuba imindeni yabo, futhi nemisebenzi yabo idansa futhi bobabili bahlabelela, basebenzisa abesilisa abadala njengabafana noma abapheka izifebe, noma ngisho nabashadile. I-Hijras ingaba yizinduna zokuqhathanisa ezihlukile noma ama-transvestites wempucuko yosuku lwanamuhla.

Khanith

Ngisho nohlobo lweKhanith ubulili obuvunyelwe e-Oman. Ngisho ne-khanith yindoda engama-gay Ama-prostitutes afaka itafula lokugqoka lingabantu bobabili, kuhlanganise nemibala ekhanyayo (endaweni egcotshwe, ekhonjiswe ngamadoda), noma yiziphi izindlela zabo zesifazane. AmaKhanith namantombazane bangakwazi ukuzihlanganisa Bavame ukwenza imishado noma ezinye izindaba. AmaKhanith aneziNdlu zawo siqu, enza yonke imisebenzi (owesilisa ngamunye nowesilisa). Kodwa-ke kubantu bamaKhithithi, emphakathini wabo kanye namakhosikazi angashada, abonise ubukhulu bawo ngokusebenzisa inyunyana. Uma ukuhamba noma isehlukaniso sakho senzeka, labafana bangabuyekezela kusukela kuma-khanithini emshadweni ngosuku lwabo lomumo. Amagama amabili-umoya

izindima zobulili. lezo ezingokwezigaba ezengeziwe zobulili, kumuntu ohlangothini olude kakhulu we-cisgender man and lady, indawo yendawo njengamanje ngokuvamile ihlanganiswa ngokuthi "uMoya Omabili" noma "ama-spirited amabili." Kukhona izingxenye zezingxenye zomphakathi ezithatha i- "TwoSpirit" njengeklasi ngaphezu kokuzihlanganisa nobunikazi, ngokhetha ukubonakala ngethemu noma emigameni ethize ngokobulili:

  • Isimo socansi
  • Izilwane ezingezona abantu

Izilwane Ukuziphatha ngokobulili ngokobulili (uhlu)

Isigaba sigaba

vte

Ubudlelwano phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo nobuciko bezocansi kungaba yisihloko sokuhlaziywa. kuyilapho ososayensi bengacacisi isizathu esiqondile sokuzibandakanya ngokocansi, bathi inhlanganisela yezinto eziphathelene nezakhi zofuzo, ama-hormonal, kanye nezenhlalakahle ziqinisekisa lokho.Izizathu zokuthi umthelela womphakathi osendlini ngemuva kokuzalwa ngokobulili unomthelela kangakanani, noma kunjalo, ubuthakathaka, ikakhulukazi kubesilisa.

Imibono yezinto eziphilayo ezichaza izimbangela zezocansi zendawo yezocansi ezithandwa ngabososayensi futhi zibandakanya ukuxhumana okunamandla kwezakhi zofuzo, indawo yokuqala yocansi yokuzala izakhi kanye nesakhiwo sobuchopho. Lezi zici, ezingase zihlotshaniswe nomcimbi wobulili obuhlukile, ubungqingili, abesilisa nabesifazane, noma i-agamid orientation, ama-gene, ama-hormone e-ante, nesakhiwo sobuchopho.

Izifundo ezimbili

Ucwaningo oluningana olwenziwe kabili luye lwazama ukufanisa ukubaluleka okuphathelene nesayensi yezinto eziphilayo kanye nezindawo ezizungezile ngaphakathi kokunqunywa kocansi. phakathi nocwaningo lwe-1991, uBayley noPillard baqhube ukutadisha amawele wesilisa abaqashiwe "ezincwadini zokuhlala ekhaya", futhi bathola ukuthi abazalwane abangamashumi amahlanu abayisishiyagalolunye baphenywa) futhi amashumi amabili nesithupha amawele angama-dizygous (DZ) "I-MZ 'ibonisa amawele afanayo anezilinganiso ezilinganayo zezinhlobo zofuzo ezihambisana ne-DZ' kubonisa amawele angamazwe noma ngabe yiziphi izakhi zofuzo zendawo ezixutshwe ngezinga elifana nelabantwana abangamawele amabili. amawele, abacwaningi bathola phakathi kwezifundo zabo ezisemadodeni ama-concordance isilinganiso somkhuba wobulili ongamashumi ayisithupha nesishiyagalombili phakathi kwamawele e-monozygotic nengxenye yehora eyodwa phakathi kwamawele adizayo. Ku-2000 Bailey, uDunne noMartin bafunde isampula enkulu kunazo zonke, amawele e-901 ase-Australia kodwa bahleka ngamahemuhemu kodwa i-0.5 inani le-concordance. Bathole i-concordance engamakhulu amabili ngaphakathi kwamaduna amabili afanayo noma ama-MZ ne-concordance ehlanzekile yegolide yamadodakazikazi afanayo noma ama-MZ. Ama-self-rumored zygosity, sexua Ukukhanga, ukucabangela kanye nokuziphatha kwakuhlotshiswe ngefomu kanye ne-zygosity kwahlolwa ngesimo sezwe uma kungaqinisekisiwe. abacwaningi abahlukahlukene basekela izimbangela zezinto eziphathelene nobulili besilisa nabesifazane.

U-Bearman noBruckner (2002) bagxeke izifundo zakuqala ezigxila ezintweni ezincane, bakhethe amasampuli kanye nokukhetha okungezona okumelele kwezihloko zabo. Bafunde ama-289 amabhangqa amawele afanayo (i-monozygotic, noma ivela eqenjini elilodwa elisetshenzisiwe) kanye nama-495 amabhangqa wamawele womzalwane (i-dizygotic, noma i-2 amaqanda abulawe) namazinga atholakalayo we-concordance wokukhangwa ngokobulili obufanayo ngamashumi ayisikhombisa kuphela.7% yamaduna afanayo afanayo futhi amahlanu.3% kwabesifazane, iphethini abayishoyo "ngeke lisho ithonya elifakwe ngabanye emiphakathini yezenhlalakahle".

Ucwaningo lwe-2010 lwamawele onke omdala ezweni laseScandinavia (okungaphezu kwesikhombisa, amawele e-600) athola ukuthi ukuziphatha ngokobulili obufanayo kuchazwa yizici ezifakwe njengefa kanye nemithombo ethile eqondene nendawo (njengendawo ye-ante partum, ubuchwepheshe obunempilo nokuhlukunyezwa, futhi njengamaqembu oontanga, nokuhlangenwe nakho kocansi), kanti ukuthelela kokuguquguquka kwemvelo okwabelwana ngayo njengendawo eyakhelwe emndenini kanye nemibono yomphakathi yayibuthakathaka, kodwa umthelela obalulekile. amantombazane akhombise ukuthambekela okwakungabonakali okwenziwe ngokweqile ukuze kuthathwe umthelela obuthakathaka wemiphumela yefa, kuyilapho amadoda engabonakali umthelela wemiphumela ehambisanayo yemvelo. ukuqashwa kwamawele amakhulu abantu aseScandinavia kwaklanyelwe ukubhekana nokugxekwa kwezifundo zokuvolontiya, lapho okungahle kube khona ukubandakanyeka kwamawele angama-gay kungathonya imiphumela.

Imodeli ye-biometric ithole ukuthi, kumadoda, imiphumela yezakhi zofuzo ichazwe .34 - .39 kokuhluka kwesimo socansi, indawo eyabelwe ngayo .00, kanye nendawo ezungezile ezizodwa .61 -. 66 kokuhlukahluka. Ukulinganisa okulinganayo phakathi kwamantombazane kwakuyi - .18 - .19 yezici zezofuzo, .16 - .17 yezemvelo okwabelwana ngayo, kanye ne - .64 -. 66 yezici ezihlukahlukene zemvelo. nakuba izikhathi eziningana zokuzethemba ziphakamisa ukuchazwa ngokucophelela, imiphumela yendawo yokugcina ngokuhambisana nemiphumela emihle yemvelo, izakhi zomndeni kanye nokulinganisela emiphumeleni emikhulu yezindawo ezingezona okwabelwana ngazo (ezenhlalo nezenhlalo) ekuziphatheni ngokobulili obufanayo.

Izikhalazo

Ucwaningo lwe-Twin luye lwathola ukuhlukunyezwa okuhlukahlukeneyo kanye nokuzikhethela okuzikhethela lapho kunqunywa khona abantu abathandanayo nabangqingili bezinkampani zakwa-gay endaweni yokuzivocavoca. ngokuqinisekile, kufinyeleleka ukuphetha ngokuthi, uma kunikezwa ukuhlukana kwezocansi ezinhlotsheni eziningi zamaphini afanayo, ubuhlobo bobulili abukwazi ukubizwa ngokuthi yizici zofuzo.

Enye inkinga ukuthi ukutholakala kwamuva ukuthi ngisho namawele e-monozygotic angase ahluke ngokuphelele futhi kukhona indlela engabangela amawele omama-monozygotic ukuba angahambisani nomkhuba wobulili. I-Gringas no-Chen (i-2001) ichaza izindlela ezihlukahlukene ezingahle zenze umehluko phakathi kwamawele e-monozygotic, okubaluleke kakhulu lapha okuyizinto zokuzikhethela nokuzondwa. Amawele e-dichorionic angaba nemvelo ehlukile yokuvikela imithi ngenxa yokuthi athola igazi lomama kusuka ku-placenta ehlukene, futhi lokhu kungase kuphele emazingeni ahlukene ngokuphelele okukhula kobuchopho. Amawele e-Mono amniotic ahlanganyela endaweni yokufihla, kodwa uzobe ehlushwa 'kokubili kuya kwamabili ama-symprome' okuphazamiseka lapho iwele elilodwa "lihambisana ngokugcwele negazi futhi ngokungeziwe kube nokuhlukile okuhlukile kwegazi".

Ucwaningo lwezixhumanisi ze-Chromosome

Ucwaningo lwe-Chromosome lokuxhumanisa ubulili luye lwabonisa ukuthi kunezici eziningi eziphathekayo zofuzo kulo lonke i-oda. Ku-1993 uDean Hamer nozakwabo bavezile ukuthola okuvela ekuhlaziyweni kokuxhumanisa kwesampula sabazalwane abangama-70 abangama-gay nemindeni yabo. U-Hamer et al .. wathola ukuthi amadoda angama-gay anamazinyo amaningi omama abesilisa nabangumzala emndenini womama kunomuntu oyedwa. AbakwaGay abazalwane beZizwe Ezihlangene babonise ukuthi laba bazali bokubeletha bahlolelwa ukuxhunywa kwe-chromosome ngokobulili, ukuhlukunyezwa kwamakhilomitha angamashumi amabili nambili ku-chromosome yobulili ukuze bahlole okufanayo. Kwesinye isifiso, ikhadinali yezinkanyezi ezingama-40 ezivivinywe zatholakala zinezilinganiso ezifanayo esifundeni esivela ku-Xq28, okwakungaphezu kwamazinga alindelekile angamashumi amahlanu kubafowabo abafowabo. Lokhu kwakuthandwa kakhulu ngokuthi "isakhi sofuba" esivela emaphephandabeni, kubangelwa umehluko omkhulu wemibono. USanders et al. Ku-1998 abhalwe ekutadisheni kwabo, bazi ukuthi i-pc eyishumi nesishiyagalolunye yamalume abazalwane abangqingili phezu kwalesi simo kwakuyizinsizwa eziningi, uma kuqhathaniswa ne-pc ayisithupha emiphumeleni yesandla ehlukile

Ukuhlaziywa okuphumela kuHu et al. yenziwe kabusha okutholakala ngokushesha. Ukuhlaziywa okungenakuphikiswa ukuthi abazalwane abangamashumi ayisithupha nesikhombisa kulesampula esisha esabelwe uphawu mayelana ne-chromosome yobulili ku-Xq28.2 eminye imibiko yesayense (i-Bailey et al., '' I-1999; uMcKnight ngamunye noMalcolm, 2000) abahlulekile ukuthola ukuphambana of ubudlelwane bomndeni ongqingili emgwaqeni wamaGay. Ukuhlaziywa okunye nguRisis et al. ku-1999 yehlulekile ukukhiqiza ngokunenzuzo izinzuzo zokuxhumanisa ze-Xq28 .Ukuhlaziya konke kwedatha kuphakamisa ukubambisana ku-Xq28, noma kunjalo, izimpawu zokungezelela ukuthi ama-enzyme kufanele abonise ama-akhawunti ngokuphelele ukuze abe nokufaneleka kocansi.

Mustanski et al. (I-2005) yenza iskena esiphelele se-génome (esikhundleni sokuskena kwe-chromosome yocansi kuphela) kubantu kanye nemindeni okwakungamangalelwa eHamer et al. (1993) no-Hu et al. (I-1995), ngokungeziwe kwezinye izindawo eziphelele zakamuva. Ukuthi abazange baxhumane no-Xq28.

Imiphumela ku-Isikhungo Esiyinhloko Esiyinhloko esiphelele Iqoqo eliphelele elingabonakali labaphenyi lihlolisise ukuhlaziywa kokuxhumanisa kwezocansi eMelika Society of Human Genetics ku-2012. Ukuhlaziywa kwabantu kwakunamaqembu e-409 abazalwane, '' ahlolwe ngamaphementi angaphezulu kwama polymorphism. Ulwazi lwakhiqiza ngokuphawulekayo imiphumela ye-Hamer ye-Xq28 enqunywe yi-TwoPoint efanayo kanye ne-multi-point (MERLIN) ye-LOD yokumakwa kokulinganisa. Ukuxhumeka kutholakale nabambalwa phakathi kwezindawo ezitholakale ekubukeni kombono wobubanzi be-Hamer. Ukuma kocansi akubonakali ukuthi kuhlobene ne-Xq28, nakuba kungabonakali ukuzalwa kofuzo.

Ukwengeza okusemandleni, ukunikela ngomnikelo wesigceme we-chromosomal ekuziphendukeni kwe-orientation kuyaqhubeka kuboniswa. Embikweni womphakathi owenziwe ngokungaphezu kwabahlanganyeli be-7000, '' u-Ellis et al. (I-2008) ithola igebe elikhulu ngokuphindaphindiwe kwefomu lefomu legazi A phakathi kwabantu abesilisa nabangqingili kanye nabesilisa nabesifazane. Ngaphezu kwalokho bathola ukuthi "ukuphakama okungavamile" kwamadoda angama-gay nabesilisa abathandana nabo baqeda i-Rh drawback ngokuphambene nobulili obufanayo. Njengoba izinhlobo zegazi ne-Rh ziyizici ezizuzwe njengefa elilawulwe yi-alleles esekelwe i-chromosome 9 ne-chromosome intshi ukuhlaziywa kusho ukuxhumeka phakathi kwamagciwane on autonomies nobungqingili.

Ucwaningo lokuzibandakanya ngokobulili Kwahlaziywa ngokuningiliziwe Kwezici eziningi zezindlela zezilwane. Esikhathini esivamile isithelo esisha esiphuthumayo se-Drosophila melanogaster, i-liner ephelele yokugqugquzela ngokocansi ubuchopho babo kanye nokuziphatha okulawulayo kuzobonakala kahle kokubili kokubili amadoda nabesifazane, futhi banikeze uhlelo oluthile lokuqomisana okulawulwayo. Ezilwaneni ezincelisayo, iqoqo lezakhi zofuzo eKorea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology lushintsha isifiso sobulili samagundane wesifazane esusa i-receptor eyodwa ehlobene nokuziphatha kokuzala. Amagundane abonisa isikhalazo nokuziphatha ngokocansi ngendwangu yamagundane eyengeziwe. Abantu abagcina i-receptor ngqo fucose mutarotase (i-FucM) beyilethwe kumagundane.

Ezingxoxweni ezithinta abezindaba, okuye kwashiwo abacwaningi abaphefumuli beHereditary 'ubufakazi akufanele bafanane ne-determinism. Njengoba kuchazwe nguDean Hamer kanye noMichael Baileyattributes nje phakathi kwezici eziningi ezithinta ubungqingili.

Emuva ku-20 17, Imvelo yanyathelisa okuthunyelwe isebenzisa ukuhlaziywa kohlobo lwe-genome ngokuzibandakanya ngokobulili. Ucwaningo luqukethe amadoda nabesilisa abadala. I-receptor ebizwa ngokuthi i-SLITRK6 kwi-chromosome i-1 3 inqunywe, ibuye ibe nendawo noma i-DNA ilungiselelo elihlukile kakhulu kubantu kunabantu abadala. Ukuhlola kuqinisekisa ukuhlaziywa kwesibili okutholakala nguSimon levay. Ukuhlola kukaLevay kubonisa ukuthi i-hypothalamus yamadoda ihluke kubesilisa. I-SLITRK6 imatasa kusukela ebuchosheni obuphakathi lapho eqinisweni i-hypothalamus isasasebenza. Abaphenyi bathola esinye isisindo, esibizwa ngokuthi "i-thyroid stimulating receptor receptor" (TSHR) nge-chromosome 14 ukuthi ilungiselelo le-dna lihluke ngokungeziwe ngokulingana nabesilisa abadala abesilisa nabangqingili.I-TSHR iphakamisa isifo se-thyroid kanye nesifo setilongo saphazamisa indima ye-TSHR. etholakala kubantu abesilisa nabangqingili kunabesilisa abaqondile. Ucwaningo luphakamisa ukuthi abantu bancishiswe isisindo somzimba. Kwacatshangwa ukuthi i-hormone ye-TSHR yancipha isisindo somzimba.

Ucwaningo lwe-Epigenetic

Ucwaningo lubonisa ukuhlanganiswa okubandakanya i-genetic Yakha umama Ngokuhambisana nobungqingili bamadodana akhe. Amantombazane anomabili ama-chromosomes e-X, owodwa "azosuswa." Ngisho nokungaqali kwe-X chromosome kwenzeka ngokungahleliwe embukisweni, okuholela kumaseli angaba ngomusa anqunywe yi-chromosome namanje ematasa. kubonakala sengathi ukucima kungabonakala ngendlela ethile. I-Bocklandt et al. (2006) yabhala lokhu, kumama wamadoda angama-gay, izinhlobonhlobo zabesifazane abasebenzisa i-skewing enkulu ye-X ye-chromosome inactivation iphakeme kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nomama osusana nabangqingili. Amaphesenti angu-13 wamama abanezingane ezincane zobungqingili, namaphesenti angu-23 omama abasebenzisa amadodana amabili angqingili, abonisa ukwehluleka ngokweqile, uma kuqhathaniswa namaphesenti angu-4 omama abangenabo amadodana angqingili.

I-oda lokuzalwa

I-Blanchard ne-Klassen (i-1997) Yaqaphela ukuthi konke okunye Okuchaza kabanzi lokhu kutholakala, kuye kwaphakanyiswa ukuthi ama-fetus wesilisa ajabulele impendulo ye-immune esophageal okuyinto eba lukhuni kakhulu kuwo wonke ama-embryo alandelayo. Le mfundiso yokugoma yomama (MIH) iqala lapho amangqamuzana emlonyeni womama eveza ukugeleza komama ngenkathi ekhulelwe noma ngenkathi ekhulelwe. Zonke lezi amaprotheni ezixhunywe nge-Y angeke zizwakale ezivela kumama omvikela omama njengoba engowesifazane, ngakho kumnciphisa ukuba akhiqize ama-radicals angase aqhubekele kulo lonke i-wreak inhlekelele ekamelweni lymph. Ngalokhu okulandelayo, izidumbu ezilwa namadoda zingadlulela phambili umgudu wegazi / wengqondo (BBB) ​​wale nzobuchopho yobungane obukhulayo, ngokushintsha izinguquko zengqondo zobulili-dimorphic uma kuqhathaniswa nokuzibandakanya ngokocansi, ngakho-ke ukukhulisa amathuba okuba ingane encane ibe khona ngokungangabazeki ukukhangwa kubafana uma kuqhathaniswa nabesifazane. Kungukuthi le antigen ukuthi ama-HY Compounds omama asetshenziselwe ukusabela 'ukukhumbula'. Ama-fetus abesilisa abaphumelelayo abhekene nokuhlaselwa yi-HY Compounds eyanciphisa amandla ama-antigens e-HY ukuze asebenze indima yabo engokwezifiso engqondweni yabantu.

I-theory yokuzivikela ngomzimba kamama Ihlaziywa Njengoba isifo sesiteleka esicatshangelwa ukuthi singasetshenziselwa ukuzivikela sisuke sihluke kakhulu ngokusebenzisa isitho sobulili obufanayo.

Ngisho "umphumela wokuzalwa kwabazali" kodwa noma kunjalo, ayikwazi ama-Akhawunti phakathi kwe-71-85percent yendoda yezintandokazi ze-gay. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ayichazi izikhathi lapho ingane yokuzalwa ibonisa ukunambitheka kwamadoda angama-gay (MHP).

Emuva ku-2017, ukuthi imishini yatholwa yiSosayensi of. Bacabanga ukuthi i-Neuroligin 4 Y-protein exhunyiwe iyathembeka ukuthola i-kid kamuva ukuthi iyongqingili. Ukwengeza bathola ukuthi bobabili abesifazane babe nama-anti-NLGN4Y amakhulu kakhulu. Umphumela uphinde ukhombise ukubeletha okuningi, amantombazane abashadile nabangqingili, ikakhulukazi abantu abanamaqhega asebekhulile, abathola ama-anti-NLGN4Y amazinga amakhulu kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nezilingo zokulawulwa kwabesifazane, isibonelo, omama abancane.

Ukuzala komzimba

Emuva ku-2004, abaphenyi base-Italy baqhuba ucwaningo lwabantu abangaba ngu-4,600 abaye babe yi-98 nobungqingili kanye nabathandekayo bama-100 abesilisa nabesifazane. Ubuhlobo bomndeni balabo bantu abesilisa abadala bekulindeleke ukuthi bathole inzalo eningi kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abesilisa. Ubuhlobo bomndeni besifazane balabo abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa abathandana nabo besifazane babelokhu bethola inzalo eningi kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nabantu abakuzungezile. Abaphenyi bacabanga ukuthi kukhona i-chromosome e-X ekhuthaza ukuzala kusukela kumama kanye nobungqingili ngaphakathi kwendoda yakhe kusukela entwasahlobo. Ubuhlobo obutholiwe bungachaza cishe amaphesenti angu-20 alawo mathuba ahlolwe, ekhombisa ukuthi lokho kubaluleke kakhulu, mhlawumbe mhlawumbe akuyona nje kuphela inguquko yangempela yofuzo ethonya ukuziphatha ngokocansi.

Ucwaningo lwePheromone

Ucwaningo Olwenziwe eSweden luye lwabonisa nokuthi Abafana abaqondile baphenduka ngokungafani nempepho emibili okucatshangwa ukuthi ihlanganyele ekugqugquzelweni ngokocansi. Uphenyo lubonise ukuthi uma abesifazane abalingani bobulili obufanayo kanye nabesilisa abangqingili besengozini ye-testosterone receptor etholakala emzimbeni wesilisa omdala, indawo evela hypothalamus iye yabangela. Abafana abesilisa abesilisa nabesifazane, ohlangothini oluphambene, banesimo esithinta isifo se-estrogen-like amakhemikhali omama. Ukuphela ukuthi ukuthandana ngokobulili, uma ubulili obufanayo noma okubhekene nocansi obuhlukile, kusebenza ngokulinganayo kwizinga lezinto eziphilayo. Ososayensi bakhombise ukuthi lokhu kungenzeka ukuthi kuphinde kucwaningwe ngokuhlaziya izindawo ezincane ukucacisa ukuthi ngabe ukuphendula okuhambisanayo ngaphakathi kwe-hypothalamus kungaba khona ngemva kwalokho okuhlobanisa la marekhodi usebenzisa ukuziphatha kocansi okuvuthiwe.

Ucwaningo lokuhlelwa kwengqondo

Izingxenye eziningi zale ngqondo zibikwa ukuthi zisebenze njenge-Sexual dimorphic; lokhu bahluka phakathi kwabesifazane nabesilisa. Ukwengeza, sekubuye kube nokubuyekezwa kwezihumusho ngaphakathi kokuhlelwa kobuchopho kufinyelela ekuqondeni. Emuva ku-1990, uDick Swaab kanye noMichel A. Hoffman babhala ukuthi igebe elikhulu kakhulu kule nucleus ephakeme kakhulu phakathi kwabesilisa abesilisa nabesilisa abesilisa nabesifazane. Ku-1992, '' U-Allen noGorski babike ukuthi igebe elihlobene nokuzibandakanya ngokocansi ngobukhulu bombuso wabo wangaphambili, noma ngabe ucwaningo luye lwachazwa ngabasebenzi abaningi bezocwaningo, i-1 eyathola ukuthi yonke le nguqulo ingenxa yomuntu oyedwa.

Cwaninga ukuhluka kwezinto eziphathelene nomzimba Ubuchopho buye kwavela emcabangweni wokuthi abantu banengqondo yesifazane noma indoda, futhi lokhu kubonisa ukuhlukaniswa phakathi kwabantu abakwa-2. Abanye baphenyo bathi usizo oluzinzile kulokhu okwamanje ngeke lulahleke. Ngisho noma kutholakala izikhala, kuhlanganise nobukhulu bobuchopho babo kanye nobuchopho bendawo bobuchopho buhlobene kakhulu.

I-nuclei yesifo socansi e hypothalamus yangaphakathi

USimon LeVay, ngendlela efanayo, wenza ezinye zalacwaningi. Wacwaninga amaqembu amane okuzithandela e-hypothalamus okuthiwa i-INAH1, INAH2, INAH3 kanye no-INAH4. Lokhu bekuyisihloko esifanele somqondo ukutadisha senza ingxenye ekulawuleni ukuziphatha futhi kusukela ku-INAH2 nakwa-INAH3 okuhlangenwe nakho kuye kwabhalwa ukuthi akuvumelani ngokulingana phakathi kwabesifazane nabesilisa.

Ukuhlakanipha kwavela kuye kusukela ku-4 1 izikhungo zezempilo eziphethwe yizingane ezifile. Ngisho nezihloko zahlukaniswa ngezigaba ezintathu. Iklasi lalibandakanya amadoda e-1 9 ayephelelwe yisikhathi ngezinkinga ezihlobene ne-AIDS. Iqembu. Abayisikhombisa kulabo besilisa babephelelwe yisikhathi ngenxa yezifo ezihlobene ne-AIDS. Iqembu liye lalingamantombazane e-6. Abanye besifazane abaningi bebephelelwe yisikhathi ngenxa yokugula okuhlobene nengculaza.

Abesilisa nabesifazane abaphila negciwane lesandulela ngculazi emakilasini abagula ngesandulela ngculazi bahlonishwa kusukela ekutholeni amarekhodi omtholampilo A Couple Njengoba ukuhlukunyezwa ngokobulili kwalahla ukuhlanganyela emsebenzini wobulili. Ngisho ne-Recordings yalezi zihloko ezazingekho izeluleko ngokuphathelene nobulili bazo ngokuyinhloko.

ULeVay akazange athole izimpawu zokuthola igebe phakathi kwamakilasi Ngokwezinga elikhulu le-INAH1, INAH2 noma ngisho ne-INAH4. Noma kunjalo, ukuthi iqembu le-INAH3 libheke ukuba likhulu ngoba lisuka kusigaba somuntu; kodwa okwamanje igebe lalibalulekile, futhi lahlala liphawuleka uma abantu be-6 AIDS bevela esigabeni. Ubukhulu be-INAH3 kusukela ebuchosini bendoda bebulingana nalokhu bukhulu be-INAH3 kusukela ebuchosheni besifazane.

Kodwa-ke, olunye ucwaningo luye lwabonisa iNucleus yesifunda sokuqala, njengokuthi i-INAH3, ngakho-ke ibukhulu obukhulu kakhulu emadodeni abulawa yi-AIDS kubantu, futhi eningi kunalabo besifazane. Lokhu kubonisa ukuthi abantu banalo hypothalamus. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-SCN yama-gay amadoda ikhulu kakhulu (ivolumu kanye nezinhlobonhlobo zamavolontiya ziye zaphindwe kabili kubantu abesilisa nabesifazane). Zonke lezi zifunda ze-hypothalamus azizange zicwaningwe kusukela kwabesifazane ababesilisa abesilisa noma abesifazane. Ngisho noma imiphumela yokusebenza yalezi zithole akukaze zihlaziywe ngokuningiliziwe, ngakho-ke ziphonsa umbuzo ongathí sina ngaphakathi kweTheory Dörner ehlonishwa kabanzi ukuthi amadoda angama-gay ane "female hypothalamus" kanye nendlela ebalulekile yokuhlukanisa ngqo "ubuchopho besilisa kusukela ekuqaleni ubuchopho besifazane "kungenzeka ukuthi umphumela wakho we-epigenetic we-testosterone kuwo wonke ama-embryonic improvements.

UWilliam Byne nabasebenza nabo bazama Ukuqaphela ngokunembile ukuthi ubukhulu bokuhlukahluka okuqoshwe ku-INAH intshi --4 ngokukopisha ukuhlolwa okusebenzisa ingqondo yesampula ezindaweni ezihlukahlukene: Amadoda angama-homosexuality abane-14 abane-HIV, i-3 4 yayikholelwa ukuthi amadoda angama-sexually transmitted (10-positive) , futhi i-3 4 idinga abesifazane besifazane abangasithandana nabo (9-positive). Abaphenyi be-INAH3 ubukhulu phakathi kwabesilisa nabesifazane. Ngisho no-INAH3 ubukhulu balaba bantu babenokuqhathaniswa kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abesilisa abadala abesilisa nabesifazane abadala, futhi banamakhulu kunalabo besilisa abangasithandani nabo, kodwa nokho i-gap ayizange ibone ukubaluleka kwezibalo.

Abakwa-Byne nabasebenza nabo babalwa futhi balinganisa izinombolo zabahlanganyeli ku-INAH3 ukuhlolwa okungathathwa ngaphandle nguLeVay. Imiphumela ye-INAH3 bodyweight yayifana nabantu be-INAH3; lokhu kungumthwalo we-INAH3 ubuchopho bawo besilisa bebukhulu kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nezingqondo zabesifazane, kanti imiphumela yendoda yabesilisa nabangqingili yaphela phakathi kwabantu bobabili kwezinye izigaba, mhlawumbe mhlawumbe akuyona into ehlukile kakhulu. Ngisho no-neuron bathembele bathola ukuthi kukhona i-INAH3, kodwa bathola ukuthi akukho fad.

Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2010, uGarcia-Falgueras kanye noSaab bathi "ubuchopho bubeletha phakathi nenkathi ye-intrauterine ekuqondeni kwesilisa ngokusebenza ngokuqondile kwe-testosterone kumaseli asathuthuka emisipha, noma ekuqondeni kwesifazane ngenxa yokungabi khona kwaleli homone. Ngale ndlela, ubunikazi bethu bobulili (ukukholelwa kokuba ngokobulili besilisa noma besifazane) nokuzibandakanya ngokocansi kuhlelwe noma kuhlelwe ezigungwini zethu zobuchopho lapho sisesezibelethweni. Ayikho inkomba yokuthi imvelo yomphakathi emva kokuzalwa inomthelela ekutheni ubulili noma ukuziphatha ngokobulili. "Inguqulo ye-Ovine

Inqama yesizwe isetshenziselwa ukuhlola izinhlelo zakuqala zalezo zindlela zokuguqulwa kwezingqungquthela ezithinta ubungqingili, ezikhula ekuqapheni kwakho ukuthi endaweni ethile ezungeze amaphesenti angu-8 ezinqama zikazwelonke zidonsa ngocansi ngezinqama ezengeziwe (izicathulo zesilisa) uma kuqhathaniswa nenqwaba yezinqama ezingabesifazane -obuhle. Ezinhlobonhlobo eziningi, futhi izinga eliphakeme kakhulu lokuhlukaniswa ngokobulili kungaba khona okwamanje okucacile kwe-nucleus yesifo socansi (SDN) esivela ku-hypothalamus yangaphambili, okuzoba ngaphezulu kwamadoda uma kuqhathaniswa nabesilisa.

Roselli et al. wathola i-SDN ye-Ovine (oSDN) ku-Preoptic hypothalamus elingana nokulingana, nakuba ihlanganiswe kakhulu kunezinqama. Amakhomoni angabonakalisa ezinqameni nasezinqameni kanye ne-neurons yale-oSDN. Kodwa imiphumela ayihambisani nengxenye ye-aromatase ye-neural kusukela ekuziphatheni ngokocansi nokuziphatha ebuchosheni, ngenxa yalokhu kunqongophala kokuhlukunyezwa komlingani ovuthiwe womlingani wezocansi noma ubuningi be-oSDN ngenxa yomsebenzi wombili we-aromatase kusukela engqondweni yabo amantombazane phakathi nesikhathi esibucayi. Kungenzeka ngempela ukuthi ubungqingili be-oSDN kanye ne-morphology kungenzeka kube kuhlelwe. Iningi lemininingwane ibonisa ukuthi izinqama, njengezinqama, ziyisisindo futhi zihlanjululwa ngokuphathelene nokuvikela ukugonywa kwe-gonadotrophin, nokukhuphula, ukwamukelwa, kodwa azihlengi izintandokazi zomlingani ezibonisa ukuthi ukuziphatha okunjalo kungase kuhlelwe. Nakuba inhloso ye-oSDN ingacaciswanga, inombolo yocingo yeselula, isikhathi, kanye nevolumu yayo ibonakala ibhekene ne-orientation yocansi, kanye ne-dimorphism ngokwanele futhi kanye namangqamuzana eqiniso angase ahlukumeze lokho okushiwo. Uphenyo olwengeziwe luyadingeka njengendlela yokuqonda izidingo ezithile kanye nesikhathi sokuvuthwa kwe-oSDN kanye nendlela impikiswano yokuhlela ukuthi ukukhethwa komlingani wokubonakalisa ekuvuthweni.

Ithiyori yokulungisa imlando

Ithiyori yokulinda yasendulo ihlanganisa ukutadisha ekuthuthukiseni kanye nezakhi ezivimbela umqondo wengqondo yabo. Izinsalela ze-hormone ziye zaphawulwa Ngemibiko eminingi ngenkathi isici esiyinhloko ngokuthola ukuma kobulili, kufakiwe. Le mbono ikhuthazwa ngokuhlukahluka kokucutshungulwa kwengqondo kanye nesakhiwo sobuchopho phakathi kwabantu abathandana nabesilisa nabesifazane abesilisa nabesifazane. Incazelo ye-1 yalezo zingxabano kungenzeka ukuthi umqondo wakho wokuthi ulwazi oluqhubekayo lwe-hormone luvela esibelethweni kulokhu kuthuthukiswa lungashintsha umqondo wengqondo yabo kubantu besilisa. Imithwalo yalezi zinhlanganisela ikholelwa ukuthi ithonywe ngamapayipi omama nesibusayo ukungenisa imithi yokukhathazeka komama, kanye nokuhlonza. Le mbono ingafakwa ngokungeziwe kulokhu kuhlola ukuhlelwa kwe-oda lokuzalwa.

Okungajwayelekile kuyabonakala

U-Daryl Bem, isazi sezengqondo e-Cornell University, uye wacacisa umphumela wezinguquko ezihlosweni zobulili kungabonakaliswa ukuhlangana kusuka ebusheni. Uhlamvu lomfana lukhulula ingane ukuba lukhethe imisebenzi ethile. Njengomphumela walezi zinhlamvu, lokho kuzobe kunqunywe yizici ezinjengezici zefa, izingane ezimbalwa maduzane zizolethwa imisebenzi eyenziwa yizingane zobulili ngqo. Abanye bazokhetha. Lokhu kuzokhiqiza umntwana okuhlangene nakho okuhambisana nobulili okuhlukile kubantwana, nakuba izingane ezibhekene nobulili-ezingenakuqhathaniswa zizozwa ngempela. Njengoba kushiwo uBem, ukugqugquzelwa ngokushesha uma lo mfana engamalungu uzokhishwa yile nzwa yegebe ibe 'ehlukile'. Okusho ukuthi lokhu kuvuselelwa kwengqondo nakanjani kuzoguqulwa ekuvuseleleni izinzwa: izingane zizovusa ucansi ezithathwa ngokobulili abazithola njengezihlukahlukene ("okungajwayelekile"). Lesi siphakamiso sithandwa ngokuyinhloko ngokuthi "okungajwayelekile" kuyaba nomqondo wokuziphendulela.

Bem ukuzingelwa usizo kusuka izincwadi okwakushicilelwe Nokho akazange Present idatha. Ucwaningo alukhulume njengezibonakaliso mayelana nalokhu "okungajwayelekile" kuba nombono wokuziphendukela kwemvelo kuqukethe ucwaningo Ukuthandana ngokobulili yiBell et al kanye nokuhlolwa kwesayensi okwethula ukuthi ukutholakala okuvamile kweningi labantu abathandana nabangqingili kubangelwa ukuthi kube ngokobulili-okungavumelani phakathi kweminyaka yabo yentsha. Ngisho nokuhlaziywa kwe-meta yazo zonke izicwaningo ze-4-8 kubonise ubulili bobusha yiyona ndlela enamandla kunazo zonke yokuzibandakanya kobulili kwalaba besifazane nabesilisa. Kumibiko ye-6 "ezayo" - okungaba yizifundo zokuqala ezaqala ndawonye besebenzisa abafana abangafani nobulili mayelana nobudala be-63 futhi bawalandela lapho bekhulile futhi bevuthiwe - Amaphesenti angu-XNUM of abafana bawo abangafani nabo ocansini ayedinga i-gay noma i-ideology njengoba bekhulile.

Isifundo nokuthuthukiswa

Zibalwe ngezansi njenge:

General

Imikhuba yezocansi Elula imvamisa yezocansi zanamuhla iphinde inciphise amathuba okukhiqiza okuphumelelayo, futhi ngenxa yalokhu, bayobukeka behluleka ukubhekana nokuziphendukela kwemvelo ngemuva komkhiqizo weDarwinian olula (ukuphikisana phakathi kwabantu) be-assortment ehlanzekile - kunqume ukuthi ubungqingili buyokwehlisa lokho. Ezinye izinkolelo zithuthukile ukuze zichaze lokhu kuphikisana, futhi nokuthi amandla abo aboniswe ngubufakazi bokuhlola.

Ezinye izazi ziye zatshela ukuthi ubungqingili buyathandeka, ngokunikeza inzuzo ngendlela enyakho noma izindlovu zakho. Ngokwesibonelo, i-allele (uhlobo oluthile lwe-receptor) olwenza i-sickle cell anemia uma kutholakala okuphindaphindiwe kwe-2, ngokungeziwe kubeka ukuzivikela kumalariya onomuthi omncane we-anemia uma kwenzeka isipele (esibizwa ngempela ngokuthi i-heterozygous gayn) .

Izazi futhi ziye zaveza uDarwin ngokwakhe ecacisa uKin ezihlukahlukene ku-The Origin of Species, ngaleyo ndlela ingaphansi kwenguqulo yentuthuko yaseDarwinian, mhlawumbe mhlawumbe hhayi abantu kuphela, kodwa kodwa amakilasi omndeni (imigqa yegazi) ingaphila ngokukhetha.

U-Brendan Zietsch walesi sikole saseQueenland Research Research (Medical Research Research) ubonisa ukuthi umbono wokuthi abesilisa ababonisa amandla bayathandeka kakhulu ukushada nabesifazane ekugcineni babe abakhangayo kwabesifazane, uma kunikezwa izakhi zofuzo ezivame ukuzenza ukuthi zingenzi ukukwenqatshwa ngokobulili obufanayo.

Ekucwaningweni kwe-2008, abalobi balo bathi "Kukhona okuthiwa yizicucu" kuyilapho izakhi zofuzo ezithinta ubungqingili zinciphisa impumelelo yobulili bobulili obufanayo, zingabanikeza inzuzo kubalingani bobulili obuyithathayo ". Imiphumela yabo iphakamisa ukuthi "izakhi zofuzo ezithandana nobungqingili zingenza inzuzo yokuzalana ngezidakamizwa, okungase kusize ekudaleni nasekuthuthukiseni ubungqingili kubantu".

Kodwa, ngesikhathi esifundweni esifanayo, abalobi baphawula ukuthi "izincazelo ezingezona zofuzo ezingenakukwazi ukukhishwa" njengesizathu sokuthi abantu abesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa abesilisa nabangqingili babe nesigqila esineziqhingi eziningi, ikakhulukazi ekhuluma ngokuthi "ukucindezelwa komphakathi kwamanye amawele ukuze benze okuthile indlela eningi engavunyelwe ukuziphatha ngokobulili "(ngakho-ke funa inombolo ekhulayo yabalingani bobulili) ngomfanekiso wenkcazelo eyodwa ehlukile.

I-Heterosexual benefit hypothesis inikezwe ukwesekwa okuvela e-2004 Italian Study ephakamisa emphakathini wamalungu omndeni wamadoda aseGay. Njengoba ekuqaleni kwavezwa uHamer, ngisho nokunyuka okuncane Kukwazi ukuzala emantombazaneni abenza "igciwane lesandulela ngculaza" angase asebenzise kalula ukugcinwa kwayo.

I-theory yomsebenzi we-Gay

Ngisho nama-"gay uncle hypothesis" ama-posits ukuthi abantu abangenabo abantwana bangakwazi ukukhulisa izigameko zabo abathandekayo ezizukulwaneni ezizayo ngokunikeza amathuluzi (isib., Ukunakekelwa, ukuvikelwa, isihlangu) entwasahlobo yalomndeni oseduze ubudlelwano.

Le mbono isanda ukwandiswa kwalomqondo wohlobo lwesivumelwano, okuye kwahlelwa ukuchaza. I-theory yokuqala eyaboniswa nguJBS Haldane ku-1932 futhi ngemuva kwalokho ihlonywe ngabanye abandakanya uJohn Maynard Smith, WD Hamilton noMary Jane West-Eberhard. Le mbono yayisetshenziselwa ukupela imizila ehlukene yezimbungulu zenhlalo lapho cishe wonke amalungu engabonanga khona.

U-Vasey kanye noVanderLaan (2010) bahlaziya umqondo ku-Pacific Island of Samoa, nomaphi lapho befunda khona nabesilisa abafana ne-fafafa, nabesilisa abadala, abesilisa abadala futhi abafana nabafana abadala abaqashelwa ngempucuko njengehlobo lobulili. U-Vasey noVanderLaan bathole ukuthi i-fa'afafine ichaze ukuthi ngokuqinisekile bezimisele kakhulu ukusekela isihlobo, kodwa banelukuluku kakhulu ekusizeni izingane ezingekho amalungu omkhaya, enikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokuthi baqinisekise ukuthi isinqumo sabo sezinqumo.

Le mfundiso ihambisana nokucwaninga okuhlukile kulokho Okudalula ukuthi kuningi kakhulu phakathi kogogo nomkhulu kanye nodadewabo. Njengoba izinyunyana ezilinganayo kanye nabantwana bezingane zakwethu zihlanganyela ngezakhi zofuzo futhi zinezinto ezihlukahluka kuzo, kwakukhona ingozi yomndeni uma kwenzeka uhlelo luveziwe. Kuthiwa ukuthi ama-hormonal nezindawo zokucindezeleka zemvelo (ezixhunywe ku-Re-Source impendulo) zingaziphatha njengokusebenzayo.

Ukucabangela ukuthi i-hypothesis ixazulula inkinga yobungqingili ukuthi yiyona Ngisho noma ihlukumezeka ekuzaleni, Kungenzeka ukuthi ingakaze ithathwe cishe eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane zeminyaka, ososayensi abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi inguqulo enkulu kakhulu yokuziphatha njengobungqingili nobungqingili. Ukuhlukahluka kwebell-curve okwenzeka emiphakathini yezenhlalakahle kanye nezibalo kubonisa uhla lwamabala okukhuluma.

U-Vasal noVanderLaan (2011) banikeza ubufakazi bokuthi kufanele i-douleur avuncular ne-phenotype ehloswe ngokuvumelana ne-Adaptive ekhona kanye nokuziphendukela kwayo okukhethekile kuhloswe endaweni ehlukene yomphakathi, bese isimo sezinto ezihlangene esingeke sanele, ngaphakathi kwayo, njengezwi le-phenotype.

Ngokwemvelo

Inombolo Yezifundo Uthole ukuhambelana phakathi kwezinto ezibonakalayo zezintandokazi kanye nokuhlelwa kwazo; lezo zifundo zinikeza ubufakazi obubonisa ukuthi:

Amantombazane nabesilisa abathandana nabo banesisindo, ngokwengqondo Mind hemispheres. Amantombazane abesilisa nabangaphandle abavamile, ngokuvamile, ama-hemispheres amakhulu kakhulu ebuchosheni.

I-nucleus ye-hypothalamus itholwe nguSaab kanye no-Hopffman ukuba abe mkhulu kunabo bonke abantu abesilisa nabangqingili uma kuqhathaniswa nabesilisa abadala abangewona gay, ukuthi i-nucleus ye-suprachiasmatic iyaziwa ukuthi ikhulu kakhulu kubafana uma kuqhathaniswa namantombazane.

I-Guys ibika, ngaphakathi kwePenises ejwayelekile, emincane futhi ede kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nabesilisa abadala.

Ukulingana kwalokhu i-INAH 3 emqondweni wengqondo yobungqingili kunendawo ethize ye-INAH 3 abesifazane, lokho kuzoba kubi kakhulu, futhi izicubu zihlanganiswe kakhulu, uma kuqhathaniswa nobuchopho besilisa obudala besilisa.

Ukukhishwa kwangaphakathi kukhulu kunabesifazane uma kuqhathaniswa namadoda nabesifazane kuye kwabikwa ukuthi kube mkhulu kunabo bonke abantu besilisa abangqingili uma kuqhathaniswa nabesilisa abadala abangewona gay, kodwa ukuhlaziywa kwamuva akuboni lutho.

Ubuchopho besilisa bama-gay basabela ku-fluoxetine I-serotonin ekhethiwe yokubuyisela inhibitor.

Ukusebenza kwendlebe kanye neSistimu ephakathi kwezinzwa-ezinabalingani kanye nabesifazane abesilisa nabesifazane abathandana nabo besifazane bavame ukuba yize ezinye izindawo ezisetshenziswayo kubantu abesilisa abadala uma kuqhathaniswa nabesifazane abangewona abesilisa abashadile (abaphenyi abaphikisana nalokhu kutholakala kwakuhambisana nalokho okushiwo yi-hormone-hormone hypothesis yokuzibandakanya kwezocansi).

Impendulo ye-startle (I-Eye Blink ngemuva komsindo omkhulu) izoba uMasculini kusuka kwabesifazane abesilisa nabesilisa nabesifazane.

Ubuningi bomuntu abesilisa abesilisa nabangqingili baphenduka ngokuhlukile nge-2 yokubeka ama-pheromone we-Gender (NOMA, ekhona emicimbini yomgodi wesibhamu, futhi i-EST (ebonwe ku-pee wesifazane).

Ngisho i-amygdale, isifunda somqondo, ibukeka kakhulu ngokubambisana nakubantu abathandana nabasilisa abakhulu kunabesilisa uma bebhekene nezinto ezivusa ucansi.

Ukuphambana okwenziwe nge-span okubandakanya iminwe yezintambo nezinkomba kubhalwe phansi ukuze kungavumelani, ngokuvamile, phakathi kwabesifazane abangewona abesilisa nabangqingili.

AmaLesbi kanye namadoda angama-gay angase abe ngaphezulu:

Ucwaningo lwabesilisa abangaphezulu kwe-50 lithole ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angu-23 anezinwele ze-Counter-clockwise whorl, kunokuba amaphesenti angu-8 avela kubantu abavamile. Lokhu kungaxhuma ngokushiya kwesokunxele.

Abafana be-Gay baye bakhulisa ubunzima be-girth eminwebeni yeminwe Ngeminwe yabo yesokunxele nezithupha.

Isikhathi semilenze kanye nezitho ezingamadoda angqingili mkhulu kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nokuphakama uma kuqhathaniswa nomphakathi ojwayelekile, noma kunjalo, nje kuphela kwabesilisa abadala.

Izinhlaka zezombusazwe

Okuthunyelwe okuyinhloko: Ukuhamba komphakathi kwe-LGBT kanye nokuphikiswa kwamalungelo omthetho we-LGBT

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi izici zomzimba zifake isisekelo se-orientation zobulili kuyindaba. Ngisho noMmeli, umagazini wasezindaba wase-US ongongqingili wesondo nobungqingili, okhulunywe ku-1996 ukuthi amaphesenti angu-61 wabhalisile abakholelwa ukuthi "ngokuyinhloko izosiza amalungelo abesilisa nabesifazane abathandanayo uma ubungqingili betholakala ukuthi buzimisele ngokwemvelo". Ukuhlaziywa kwesiphambano esivela e-United States, ePhilippines, naseSweden kwaphawula labo ababekholelwa ukuthi "ubungqingili bazalwa ngaleyo ndlela" babambe isimo sengqondo esivumelana nokuqhathanisa ubungqingili kunabantu ababekholelwa ukuthi "ubungqingili bakhetha ukuba ngaleyo ndlela" noma "bafunde ukuba ngaleyondlela".

Ukuhlolwa okulingana nokuvikelwa e-US Umthetho unquma uma izidingo zikaHulumeni ziveza "ukuhlukaniswa okusobala" kwamakilasi futhi futhi banelungelo lokuhlola okwandisiwe okuchazwe ngezici eziningana, phakathi kwalokho ngeke kube nokuguquguquka.

Ubufakazi bokuthi isinqumo socansi sinqunywe (futhi ngenxa yalokho mhlawumbe singaguquguquki ngokomqondo) sizoqinisa icala elisemthethweni ngenxa yokuhlaziya okwandisiwe komthetho okhethisa ngalesi sisekelo esithile.

Izimbangela zokuzibandakanya kwezocansi zinomthelela obalulekile ekumaweni kwabantu abancane ngokocansi kusukela emibonweni yabantu abanokuzijabulisa. Mayelana ne-flip side, abanye abantu abahlala emphakathini njengoMfundisi Robert Scheck baye baphikisana nabantu bakwazi ukwamukela izibonakaliso zesayensi ngesikhathi sokuziphatha kobulili obufanayo.

Abaningi bakhuthaza ukuthi amalungelo amancane amelane nokuxhumanisa imbangela yokuthi ubulili buqokwe noma bubekwe kancane kancane. Bathi ukuthi ukuziphatha ngokocansi kungashintsha ubude bomuntu womuntu ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Ngesikhathi esifanayo abanye balwisana nanoma yimiphi imizamo yokwelashwa noma 'noma ubulili be-pathologise'deviant', futhi bakhetha ukuzama ukuthola imvume embusweni wezenhlalakahle noma wokuziphatha. I-LeVay ichazwe ekuphenduleni inkulumo evela kuma-gay kanye nama-lesbians okwenza lolu hlobo lokugxekwa uphenyo "luye lwafaka isandla esimweni sabantu abathandanayo emphakathini".

Ubulili besifo sobulili (GD) ukucindezeleka kwakho ukuthi umuntu ohlangane naye ungumphumela wesini nobulili abanikezwa wona. Ngalesi sibonelo, ubulili kanye nobulili abufanelanga ngqo ukuhlonza ngokobulili, kanti futhi indoda iyisini esithintekayo. Kunobufakazi obonisa ukuthi amantombazane aqala ukulala ngokobulili ekusebenziseni ubulili abathunyelwe angenzi ngenxa yezinkinga zokuziphatha noma ezingokwengqondo, kodwa ngaphezu kwezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezixhumene nezofuzo zabo noma ezithintekayo kuma-hormone ngaphambi kokufika.

Isiyaluyalu sobulili lwe-sex diagnostic tag (GID) sisetshenzisiwe Kusuka ku-DSM njengobungqingili bezocansi usebenzisa ukuqashiswa kwe-DSM-5. Ukuhlonza kuboniswe futhi ukuqeda inhlamba futhi ukuvumelanisa. I-American Psychiatric Association, umbhali we-DSM-5, wathi "ukungafani kobulili akuyona eyedwa ingqondo yengqondo. Abanye ososayensi abesilisa nabesifazane bayabakhuthaza ukuhlukumeza kwalesi sifo kuphela njengoba besho ukuthi ukuhlonza kuqinisa indlela yokuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi ne-pathologies.

Amasu amakhulu amadoda okuphulukisa Ukuxilongwa ngesifo sobulili obudambisa ubulili ukukhuthaza ubulili obathandayo bokuthi umuntu ngamunye ngenxa yecansi nokuphathwa kokwelashwa kwe-hormone, noma ukusebenza noma ukuphathwa kwengqondo.

Ubufakazi

Izikhombisi ze-GD ezinganeni zingakwazi ukufaka okunye okulandelayo: Ukuzithokozisa ngokobulili babo, ukuhlukaniswa komphakathi ngokweqile, ukucindezeleka, isizungu nabangane babo. Ngokwe-American Psychological Association, izingane ezingabesilisa ngokobulili zivame ukwehliswa kakhulu ekuhlukunyezweni nasekuhlukunyezweni ezikhundleni, ukunakekelwa kwabantwana, izikhungo zokwelapha zokuhlala, izindawo zokuhlala ezindaweni zokuhlala kanye nezinhlelo zezingane zobulungiswa uma kuqhathaniswa nezinye izingane eziningi.

Izinsana ezisebenzisa i-GD ziseKukhuleni Okukhulu njengokucindezeleka kokukhathazeka, ukuzibulala kanye nokuzonda. Ucwaningo lubonisa ukuthi ubulili obuphathekayo buba nesivinini esikhulu kakhulu semizamo yokuzibulala; Ukuhlaziywa okukodwa kwe-6,450 abantu abesilisa bobulili abase-United States baqaphele i-4 1% ababezame ukuzibulala uma kuqhathaniswa nesilinganiso somhlaba wonke samaphesenti angu-1.6. Kwaye kwafumaniseka ukuthi imizamo yokuzibulala yayingakaze ibe yindlala kunabesilisa nabesifazane abesilisa nabesifazane abachazela ukuthi abathandekayo babo bahlale beqinile ngemva kwalokho bephuma ngaphandle, kodwa abesilisa nabesifazane abanesidumbu esengozi esincane kakhulu bafakaza kakhulu ukuzibulala okuzamile kuqhathaniswa nomphakathi ojwayelekile. Abantu be-Transgender bangabe besengozini yokugula okungokomzwelo lokhu njengokudla kwezindaba.

Ubulili besifo sobulili kulezi zinsizwa ekuntanjeni kuzokulandela phakathi kwe-2 trajectories; kungakhathaliseki ukuthi sekuphuthumayo noma kuqale ekuqaleni. Ukuqala kokuqala kocansi kwesifo socansi kubonakala ebusheni. Ngezikhathi, ukuqala kokuqala kwe-Sex dysphoric ukuthola ukuthi ungqingili ukuthola isikhathi. Leli klasi lisaqhubeka likhangelwe kumadoda ngaphakathi kokuvuthwa. I-sex dysphoria Ayifaki ama-Indicators ebusheni, noma kunjalo, ama-akhawunti ambalwa abasha abakwahluleka ukurekhoda kwabanye abantu abaningi. Abantu abahlangabezana nokuphuza ukuphuza ngokocansi Ubuhlungu besifo socansi luzolethwa namantombazane futhi bahlanganyele. Ukuziphatha ngentshiseko.

izizathu

Umbiko Oyinhloko: Izimbangela ze-Trans physiological property

Njalo Isikhathi umuntu okhuthazelayo ngenxa ye-GID yobulili ukhona ukucindezeleka komuntu siqu. Abacwaningi abavumelani ngokuphathelene nokukhathazeka nokukhubazeka okuvela kubantu abane-GID. abalobi abaningana baye baqonda ukuthi abantu World Health Organization bane-GID ubuchwepheshe njengoba benconywa futhi behlukunyezwa; futhi lokhu, uma isiko sidinga amagatsha obulili obuqinile abesilisa nabesifazane babezoletha ubuningi kakhulu.

Ukuhlaziywa okuphindwe kabili (okubikezelwa kubantu abayisikhombisa ngezikhathi ezihambisana no-Nursing isampula neshumi neshumi nesishiyagalolunye) Kubonisa ukuthi i-GID ingaba ngamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye nambili e-genealogic, isayine amandla okuthuthukiswa noma umthelela wefa kulezi zimo, ngenxa yokunikezwa kwayo.

Sifo

I-Yankee i-Specialty Association Association ivumela ukuhlonza ukucindezeleka kobulili ngaphakathi kwenzeka ukuthi izindinganiso zesilinganiso se-DSM-5 zihlangane nazo zonke. I-DSM-5 ithi ku-2 yalezi zindinganiso zokucindezeleka ngokocansi kufanele zikhuthazwe isikhathi seviki le-6 ezinsheni noma kubantu abadala ukuxilongwa.

  • Isifiso sokusebenza njengenye yezocansi ezithunyelwe ngezocansi
  • Isidingo sokudonswa ngezocansi ngaphandle kobulili obelwe

  • Ukuzibandakanya okubalulekile phakathi kocansi oluvuthiwe noma olulodwa olubhekiswe ocansini kanye nelinye lamakhono obulili
  • Ukufisa izici zakho Ngaphandle kobulili obubelwe
  • Isidingo sokuqeda izimfanelo zobulili zomuntu owodwa Ngenxa yokungahambisani nomuntu wesilisa noma isondo somuntu oyedwa
  • Ukuqiniseka ukuthi uthola izimpendulo kanye nemizwa yobulili ngaphandle kobulili obelwe ngabanye
  • Ngaphezu kwalokho, isimo kufanele sihlobene nokucindezeleka okubalulekile emitholampilo noma ukukhubazeka.

I-DSM-5 yathinte lokhu kuhlolisisa ngaphandle kwesigaba sokuphazamiseka ngokocansi futhi kulesigaba. Ukuxilongwa kwaqanjwe kabusha kusukela ekungaboni kahle kwesobulili ekucindezelekeni ngokobulili, lapho kugxekwa ukuthi isikhathi esedlule sasihlehlisayo. Ukuthayipha okuncane ngokuma kobulili kususiwe. Ukuxilongwa kwezingane kwahlukaniswa nalabo abadala, njengokuthi "ukucindezeleka ngokocansi kubantwana". Isingeniso sokuhlonza Kubonisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi izingane zibekezelela, noma ikhono lokukhuluma ngalo zidinga ukuthi zibonakale. Ukucindezeleka ngokobulili noma ukuveza ukucindezeleka ngokocansi kungase kube Uma umuntu engakutholi izici kodwa noma kunjalo uthola ukuthi unesifo esibucayi noma ukukhubazeka emtholampilo.

Izifo eziningana ezihlobene nobulili:

Ubuntfu bobulili obuhlukile, kuvame ukulandelwa ngokusondelana ngenhloso yokuba nokusebenza kanye nekhambi le-hormonal nokucindezeleka okukhulu mayelana nobulili obubelwe, oboniswe ngaphambi kokuqhathaniswa ngokocansi noma ukuziphatha ngokobulili, ukucindezela ukucindezeleka noma ukukhathazeka.

Ukubuyekezwa kwalesi sigaba se-ICD socansi kubikezelwa kusukela e-ICD-11 ezayo.

Ukwengezwa kwesifo sokuvuthwa kwasuswa, ndawonye ndawonye nomsebenzi owenziwe kabili. I-ICD-11 ichaza ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi njengento ethi "i-sex ephawulekile futhi eyabelwe", kanye nemiboniso efana nencazelo ye-DSM-V, noma kunjalo Ayifuni ukucindezeleka okukhulu noma ukukhubazeka.

isiqondiso

Indlela yokwelapha Ukuhlolwa komuntu ngamunye kusetshenziswa i-GID kungase kuhlanganise ne-Psycho-therapy noma mhlawumbe ukukhuthaza ubulili obuyintandokazi bomuntu njengomphumela wobulili nokuphathwa kokwelashwa kwe-hormone, noma ukusebenza. Lokhu kungase kubandakanye nokweluleka, okuholela ekuguqulweni okungokomzimba, noma ukuguqulwa kwesitayela sokuphila, okubangelwa ukungenelela okunjengelaser noma electrolysis ukuhlinzwa kokuqotshwa, ukuhlinzwa kokwelapha, noma izinqubo zokuhlinza zokwelapha ezihlukile. Inhloso yokwelashwa kungase kube ukunciphisa izinkinga ezithinta njengesibonelo, kusukela esimweni sakho sokuziphatha kwabantu ngabanye, njengendlela yokunciphisa inecala ehlobene nokweluleka komuntu ngamunye, noma ukweluleka umlingani.

Ukusebenza noma ukwelashwa ngenxa yesifo socansi isifo esiyinkinga ngenxa yokungahambi kahle kwezinguquko eziguqukayo. Amathiphu aboniswa ukusiza odokotela. Abanye abantu basebenzisa izincomo ezifingqiwe eGianna Israel kanye noDonald Tarver Care Transgender Care. Amasu okuthola indlela yokwelapha ngokuvamile ahambisana nencazelo "yokunciphisa ukulimala".

Ama-pre-pubescent kids

Ucwaningo luwukuthi ukweluleka izingane ukuba zijabule Ukubamema ukuba baqhubeke bebonisa ukuziphatha okungafanani nobulili babo obunikezelwe - noma ngisho nokucwaninga ushintsho oluthile ngobulili babo - ngokulingana ngokulinganayo. Abahlengikazi abambalwa babika amaphesenti amaningi wezingane ngemuva kokuvame ukungabonisi ezinye ze-dysphoria.

"Ngaqala ukukhuluma nokubeka ama-hormone, okuthiwa abavimbela ukukhulelwa, ngakho-ke ukuyeka ukuqala kokuya esikhathini ngaphambi kokuba ingane icatshangelwe ukuthi ikhule ngokwanele ukudala ukukhetha okufundisiwe uma ukuphindaphindiwe ngokocansi okubangelwa ukushayiselwa ngokocansi okuzokwenza kube yilapho kuvele khona isithakazelo esikhulu somuntu.

Izindlela zokwelapha ngokomzwelo

I-Psycho-therapy yukuthi ikhambi lokusekela lo mlingisi olwaziyo ubulili ngamakhono abo atholakale kancane kancane, i-Sex dysphoria, nayo yaholwa. I-Psycho-therapy yinoma yikuphi ukuxhumana okuhlose ukunakekela inkinga. Kungasetshenziselwa ukungenelela nakuba otholampilo abaningi basebenzisa ukwelashwa kwengqondo ukuze banakekele ubulili besifo socansi. Ukuphathwa kwe-Psychotherapeutic ye-GID kudinga ukuvumela lowo muntu. Imizamo yokwelapha i-GID ngokumane iguqule ukuhlonza kobulili komuntu ngamunye ukukhombisa ukuthi amandla okufika ayiphumelelanga.

Amakhambi okuzithokozisa

Izindlela zokwelapha eziphilayo nezici zokuqala zobulili zokuqala zezocansi ukunciphisa ukungafani phakathi komzimba kanye nokuhlonza ucansi lomuntu ngamunye. Imithi yokwelapha ye-GID engenakho uhlobo lwe-psycho therapy ayivamile. Ososayensi bathole ukuthi uma abantu beqeda ukwelashwa kwabo kwe-GID, bazizwa bedidekile futhi belahlekile uma izinketho zabo zokwelashwa zingakapheli.

I-Psychotherapy, ukwelashwa kwe-hormone yokwelashwa, nokusebenza kobulili ngokuphindaphindiwe ngokobulili kungaphumelela ukuphulukisa i-GID noma yikuphi ukulindela kwe-WPATH kokugcinwa konke sekulandelwa eduze.

Ukwaneliseka komuntu ngamunye kanye nokwelashwa kwezinto eziphilayo nezomzwelo kubalulekile.

Epidemiology

Amazinga Abantu abane-Trans Gender ukuhluka komuntu Ngokweqile kwe-1: 2000 (cishe i-0.05percent) esuka eNetherlands naseBelgium eya ku-0.5percent yabantu abadala baseMassachusetts. Kusukela ku-poll yase-high school abafundi baseNew Zealand, i-8,500 ikhethwe ngokungahleliwe abafundi bekolishi kusukela ku-9 1 ngokungahleliwe bakhetha izikole eziphakeme ezitholwe i-1.2percent yabantwana baphendule "yebo" kulo mbuzo "Ucabanga ukuthi uyaphambana na?" . Lezi zimali ziyizo zonke. Kucatshangwa ukuthi cishe i-0.005percent ibe yi-0.014percent yamadoda nabesifazane ababalelwa besilisa ngesikhathi sokubeletha kanye no-0.002percent kuya ku-0.003percent wabantu abanikezwe besifazane ekuseni bahlonishwa ukuthi banezinkinga zokuhlukunyezwa ngokobulili, [ukuphikisana-khuluma] kubikezelwe ekucabangeni kwe-2013, nakuba kungaba khona ngempela kuthathwa njengesaphulelo esincane. Ukucwaninga kusikisela labo abavuthayo ekuvuthweni ngokuvamile bebelokhu kufika izikhathi ezingu-3 ezingaphezu kokuba yisilisa esithunyelwe ekuseni, kepha phakathi kwabantu ukuthi isilinganiso socansi sisondele ku-1: 1.

Umlando

Isifo sobulili besimo sobulili sisho manje isimo esidala soMbuso wakho kusuka ku-DSM. I-DSA 1st ye-APA ichaze isimo kusuka encwadini ye-3rd ("DSM-III") ku-1980. Ukuze bavumele ukuthi baqinisekise ukudubula kwemithi edala eyamukelwayo kwentsha ku-1-2 yonyaka ubudala. Izixwayiso ze-127 zatholakala ngomkhuba ku-2010 we-sex dysphoria.

Ngisho ne-T & P iphelile ukuhlolwa ukulinganisa ukuthi izinzuzo zezengqondo, ezomzimba nezenhlalo nezingozi ezidingekayo nge-1 2 - kubagulayo abaneminyaka engu-14. I-demo ibhekwe ukunqoba ukuthi abasebenzi bezempilo baye bakhetha ukukhiqiza imishanguzo evame ukufinyeleleka nakwabantwana njengabasha njengama-9 amashumi eminyaka ubudala. Ngokushesha nje njengoba amathiphu e-2009 athi ukulungiswa kwesifo sobulili sokudonswa komzimba kufanele mhlawumbe kungaqali kuze kube sekupheleni kokufika komntwana. I-Ferring Pharmaceuticals ikhiqiza i-Triptorelin yemithi, ekhuthazwa ngaphansi kwesihloko esithi Gonapeptyl, emanzini angu-# amabili ayenzayo nsuku zonke. Le nqubo isengaphezu kokuguqulwa, ukuze isisombululo somuntu siqale kabusha isimo sayo sangaphambili.

Umphakathi kanye nempucuko

Izici zomphakathi "zobulili" Zenziwa Kanye nokukhuthazwa ngamathemba omasiko, futhi zihlobene nokulala ngokobulili. Ngendlela efanayo, isikhungo semibala ekhethekile "nentombazane" noma "insizwa" iyingane iqala ngokwemvelo emasikweni aseNtshonalanga aseYurophu Ukulindela kuhlobene kokubili ukukhuluma nokuziphatha.

Imiphakathi embalwa inezinhlobo ezintathu zezocansi ezichazwe: intombazane, umfana, kanye nomnumzane we-Effeminate. Ngokomzekelo, e-Samoa, '' futhi isethi yamadoda abesifazana, i-fa'afafine evunyelwe ngokuphelele emtholampilo. Ngisho ne fafafine ngokuvamile ayengeke adinge noma yikuphi ukucindezeleka noma lokhu kuhlambalaza kanye nokuhlukana nocansi okuyingxenye ehambisanayo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukucindezeleka okuhlobene ne-GID esimweni saseNtshonalanga akuyona ngenxa yesifo yedwa, noma ngabe kunzima kangakanani. Kodwa-ke, ucwaningo luye lwaveza ukuthi ukucindezeleka kuyaqhubeka emiphakathini, eMpumalanga noma ehlukile, lokho kungase kube ngokwengeziwe ukwamukela ubulili obungavumelani.

Kuhanjiswe ukuthi umshushisi ubizwa ngokuthi uNorrie, okumele ahlukaniswe neqembu lobulili, 'okungewona okhethekile', elandela ukulwa nenkantolo ndawonye esebenzisa bonke abakwa-NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages. Kodwa-ke, iNkantolo yahluleka ukuthatha lolo cansi libe yisakhiwo senhlalakahle: '' wathola ukuthi ukuhlinzekwa ngokuphindaphindiwe ngokobulili 'akuzange kuxazululwe ukungalingani kwakhe ngokobulili ".

Ukuhlukaniswa kwesifo

Ukuxilongwa kwezifo zesifo sobulili (okwamanje i-Sex dysphoria) kuqale ku-DSM-III ku-1980. U-Arlene Istar Lev noDeborah Rudacille baye bahlukanisa nokuhamba kwezombangazwe. Abanye abaphenyi, isibonelo uRobert Spitzer kanye noPaul J. Fink, bathi ukuziphatha nokuzijabulisa okutholakala ekuziphatheni ngokobulili akuyona engokwemvelo futhi kubonakalisa isifo.

Abantu Abalala Ngesifo Sezocansi Kungenzeka noma bangahloniphi Imikhuba yabo kanye nemizwelo ngenxa yezifo. Izinhlupho kanye nezinzuzo zikhona ekufezeni ukuhlukunyezwa ngokobulili. Ngenxa yokuthi i-dysphoria yobulili ihlukaniswa ngenxa yezifo ezincwadini zokunakekelwa kwezempilo (ngokwesibonelo, incwadi yesandulela ye-DSM, '' i-DSM-IV-TR, ngaphansi kwesihloko esithi "ukuhlukunyezwa ngokobulili"), eziningi zamabhizinisi omshwalense zizokhokha ngokuzithandela ezimbalwa Ukusetshenziswa kwekhambi lokuhlukunyezwa ngokobulili. Ukunciphisa ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi njengesimo, ukulungisa kabusha ngokobulili kungenzeka mhlawumbe kungelashwa, futhi kungabhekwa njengendlela yokwelapha, kunokuba ukwelashwa. abesilisa nabesifazane bathambekele kancane kunabanye abaningi ukuba babe nezinqubomgomo zempilo yomshwalense wempilo yomshwalense wezempilo, futhi njalo bahlangane nokungahloniphi nokuhlukunyezwa ezinkampanini zokunakekelwa kwezempilo.

Ukuxilongwa kwe-DSM-IV-TR Ingxenye yokucindezeleka Akuyona into evela kumuntu ngamunye ehambisana nokubandlululwa nokulahlwa. Uprofesa wezokwelapha uDarryl Hill ubheka ukuthi ukushaywa yisifo sobulili akuyona nje ukungasebenzi kahle, kepha kunalokho okushoyo kubonisa ukucindezeleka ezinganeni ezenzeka lapho abanye abaningi kanye noomama nobaba bebunzima. Abantu baseTransgender abachazwe ekubandlululweni, ukuhlukunyezwa nobudlova, nabo babenqatshelwe emphakathini. Ngo-May 2009, iziphathimandla zaseFrance zamemezela ukuthi ubulili besandulela ngculazi buzohlukaniswa njengokugula kwesifo sengqondo, kodwa ngokusekelwe ezihlanganisweni zamalungelo eFrance akukho okunye okushintshiwe. I-Denmark yenze isitatimende ku-2016.

Emuva ku-ICD-11, i-GID ifakwa kabusha njenge-incongruence yezocansi Ukuxhunyaniswa nokugula. Isigaba sokusebenza Ukuhlelwa kabusha ukukhuthaza ukugcina uphenyo ku-ICD-11 ukulondoloza Ukusetshenziswa kwamasevisi.

Izinhlangano eziseduze I-Wiki izincwadi w.svg

Le ngxenye ngeke okwamanje ilahlekelwe ulwazi Abantu abashadile. Sicela ukhulise indawo. Okucacile kungase kusekelwe ekhasini lokuxoxa.

Ukuxhumeka okubandakanya abesifazana kuya kwabesilisa kanye nabalandeli bamaLazbi Abantu abaneGID bayakunyakazela phakathi nesikhathi sokuguqulwa komkhuba, noma bashintshe ekuphenduleni imimoya. Ukuxhumeka phakathi kwabesifazane kanye nabantu abane-GID abahluphekile ngesikhathi umbukiso we-GID ubonisiwe noma uzwakala. Abaphenyi bathi lesi sigameko salobudlelwane sibonakala sincike ekuzivumelaneni kowesifazane. Izimpikiswano zivame ukuvela, kanti wonke umngani we-cisgender ethukuthele noma enganelisekile, lapho isikhathi somlingani esivela kumuntu wesifazane, lapho i-libido yomngane wayo iyancipha, uma umlingani eboshiwe futhi eshaywa ngokwengqondo uma ephuma emsebenzini wesilisa. Amantombazane aseCisgender nawo akhathazeke ngokukhathazeka komphakathi futhi angaba mnandi nawo wonke amandla omzimba kulabo abalingani ngenkathi umlingani eqhubeka ngesikhathi sokuguqulwa. Ngisho nabesifazane be-cisgender abathanda kakhulu ukumukela futhi ukuvumelanisa ukuguquka komlingani wabo, ngakho-ke abaphenyi bathi, bangabantu abahamba ngezocansi kakhulu noma abantu abanjwe ngokobulili ngamadoda kanye nabantu.

Imithetho

Umthetho okhona uvimbela izikole Ngokwezimfanelo ezinikeziwe, njengesibonelo socansi, ukulingana ngokobulili, nokukhuluma ngokobulili, futhi kuchaza izimangalo ezihlukahlukene zomgomo wezomthetho kanye nokubhekwa kwalesi sizwe kulokhu kuhlonishwa. Umthetho osebenzayo ulindele ukuthi ukubandakanyeka kwisenzo somzimba esinikeziwe noma umdlalo, uma kunesidingo sabafundi bobulili, kube khona abafundi bazo zonke ubulili. Lo mthethosivivinywa ungase udinge ukuthi umfundi avunyelwe ukuba ahlanganyele kumaphakheji wesofthiwe ehlukanisiwe ngokobulili, imisebenzi, isibonelo, imincintiswano yemidlalo namathimba, futhi asebenzise izikhungo ngokuhambisana nokulingana ngokobulili, naphezu kobulili obubhalwe kumadokhumenti omfundi.

Ngisho neNkomfa yamaKatolika yaseCalifornia yaqhathanisa i-invoyisi engadingekile, njengoba umthetho ukhona ukulwa nokubandlululwa. Okhulumela lo mhlangano wathi ukukhathazeka kudinga ukubhekana nezikhulu zamaphoyisa.

Ukumelana kwamalungelo we-LGBT

Umhlahlandlela olandelayo uhlanganisa nezinkinga. Khumbula ukusiza ekuthuthukiseni Yiya phezu kwezihloko. (Funda ukuthi uzokhipha nini le miyalezo yesifanekiso)

  • Umhlahlandlela olandelayo ungase ungabi nalokulinganisela ekubhekiseni imibono.
  • Lo mbiko ufuna izikhalazo zokuqinisekisa.
  • Isigaba socingo on

Imithethonqubo ejikeleza iplanethi ye-LGBT yokubeletha kwabazali ukukhululwa kwezinguquko Izinkinga Amalungelo omthetho e-Intersex Ukwesekwa kwezempi Ukubaluleka kokuxhumeka Inhlangano yowesilisa ocansini I-Transgender amalungelo omthetho LGBT Amalungelo omthetho wezomthetho Ukuphikiswa kobudlova kubantu abesilisa nabesifazane be-LGBT

Ukumelana kwamalungelo we-LGBT Kungaba ukumelana namalungelo akho:

Izinhlangano ezinamandla ekumelana namalungelo e-LGBT Ngokuvamile ziphikisana nokumiswa komthetho okwenza umlingani wobulili obufanayo ugunyazwe, ukudluliselwa komthetho okubhekiswe ekubhekaneni namacala okulwa ne-LGBT, isibonelo, umsebenzi kanye nezindlu, ukudlula umthetho we-AntiBullying ukuze kuqaphe imithetho ye-LGBT ukuhlambalaza ubuhlobo obufanayo bobulili, kanye nemithetho ehlobene namalungelo e-LGBT. Zonke lezi zinhlangano zivame ukuziphatha komphakathi noma zenkolo.

Izinkolelo zokholo zingashukumisela ukuphikisa, ukuzithemba, ukuguqulwa kwamabandla, ukuhlukumezeka, imibono kahulumeni, noma ezinye izincazelo.

Umthetho wokuncintisana kwamalungelo e-LGBT Kungenzeka uqhathaniswe nokubandakanya imishado yabantu noma izinyunyana, ukukhulisa izingane ze-LGBT kanye nokwamukelwa, ukuhlinzeka ngamabutho ahlomile, ukusetshenziswa kobuchwepheshe bokubeletha okusizayo, nokutholakala kokuhlinzwa kwesimo sobulili kanye nokusebenzisa indawo ye-hormone ukulungisa amadoda nabesifazane abancane.

Umlando

Abafundi bahlelwe kusukela emcimbini wamaNazi eNkundleni yale Nhlangano Yezokucwaninga Ngezocansi eBerlin ngo-6 May 1933, ethatha amanoveli nemifanekiso yayo baze baqothule.

Ukunyakaza kwamalungelo obulili bokuthoma kuvela ekupheleni kwekhulu le-19 leminyaka eJalimane.

Kusukela ku-1920 naku-1930s, uzothola imiphakathi ye-LGBT ezindaweni ezinkulu ezifana neBerlin; Ngokusobala uMnuz Magnus Hirschfeld ongumJalimane-ongumJuda wayengomunye wabakhulumeli bazo ukuthola amalungelo omthetho we-LGBT okwamanje. Ngemuva kokuba iqembu lamaNazi liqalwe amandla ku-1933, enye yezinyathelo zokuqala zokugubha imikhosi yayizoshisa i-Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, i-Institut für Sexualwissenschaft yaseHirschfeld, lapho amaNazi amaningi awaziwayo ahlushwa khona ukuze athole izinkinga zobulili. Ekuqaleni ukuvumelanisa nobungqingili bobabili u-Ernst Röhm kanye nabalandeli bakhe, ngakho-ke abantu abaningi abesilisa nabangqingili babesebenzisa iqembu lamaNazi emva kobusuku be-Long Knives kanye noMthetho we-Section 175 waqala ukuphoqelelwa, besebenzisa abesilisa abangqingili ababehlala emakamu okuhlushwa ngu-1938.

Ngaphansi kokubusa kwamaNazi eJalimane, amadoda angama-Legal Women LGBT namadoda abhekene nemikhuba emibili. Ngokuqinisa futhi ukuqinisa umthetho okhona ongangena kuwo ukuze usebenzise ubungqingili kwaba; Ubungqingili buye kwaphathwa ngezinga, kodwa njengesifo sezempilo. Indlela yokwelapha yayisimiso se-eugenics, esetshenziselwa ama-boffin ukuze kutholakale i-euthanasia, futhi iqala ngokushaya inzalo okuthile kwabantu abasemakamu okufukuzwa. Ukucindezela ukushayela kuye kwaba ukususwa kwezinto ezibonakalayo ezivela emphakathini - ifa, inhlalakahle, ukuzimela komuntu kanye nomtholampilo, futhi nokuthi ukususwa kokukhubazeka emazingeni amaningi. imithi kwakufanele ihlangane nomsebenzi omangalisayo wokuphulukisa ezweni lonke, kanye nesithombe sokuthuthukiswa kwalawo madokotela wezokwelapha wamaNazi aphela ekugcineni: ukuthi umphulukisa waba umbulali. Imikhombandlela yomshuwalense wokugaya inzalo ihlotshaniswa njalo nokuhlolisisa okunomsoco kanye nokulwa namagciwane kulo mbono: Kanye nalo lonke "ukuhlanzwa komzimba kazwelonke" kanye "nokuqeda ukulungiswa kwefa."

Kuphikisana ngokuthi UkuQothulwa Kwesizwe kwakungaphansi kokuhlukunyezwa kwabase-Holocaust abengeziwe, futhi kuvinjelwe eJalimane ngokwakho, kuxhomeke kumaphuzu angamadoda nabesifazane besilisa abesilisa nabangqingili abafika ngaphambi kwejaji, okubandakanya i-50,000 ne-5,000 beqedile emakamu okuhlushwa. Kodwa inamba yabantu abafika ngaphambi kwezinkantolo beholwa (noma bavolontiya) ukuze babone inzalo / castration; babezohlanganiswa kanye nabanye abaningi ukuthi, ngokuvumelana nakho konke ukuguquka komlando kumasiko wesimanje saseJalimane (owaqala ukusebenzisa iWestphal, futhi eyatholakala ngendlela kaKrafft-Ebing eya eMagnus Hirschfield, yobungqingili okwamanje kubhekwa njengokusebenzisa i-neurological, i-endocrinological or heritage heritage), wayedlwenguliwe ukuthola ubungqingili njengemitholampilo ngokuphambene nenkinga yobugebengu. Abantu abathintekayo abanezifo zengqondo futhi bahlanganisa nomzamo we-T15,000 ukuxosha abantu abanezinkinga abasolwa ukuthi ngeke babonakaliswe emazingeni e-.

Ukukhuluma ngobungqingili, kodwa abesilisa nabangqingili benza isinqumo sokubonisa ubunikazi babo. Amadolobhana kanye nemigoqo yobungqingili zenziwa, kanti futhi kwakukhona namasiko angqingili abesilisa nabangqingili adalwe.] Imikhankaso yamalungelo obungqingili iqala ukukhula ngaphakathi kwe-UK. Ngaphambi kokuphela kwalokhu ubulili bobulili be-1960 baqala ukuchithwa futhi baphinde baxilwe kwezinye izingxenye ezinjenge-UK, New Zealand, Australia, eNyakatho Melika naseYurophu, ngaphakathi kwendabuko yabo yokuzala ngokuhambisana nezinhlelo zokulwa nezifo. Ukuphikiswa okuhleliwe kwamalungelo obulili nobungqingili kwaqala kusukela ku-1970 s.

Ukubuka komphakathi

Izindlela zomphakathi ezithinta ubungqingili ziyahlukahluka ngezigaba ezihlukahlukene zomlando kanye nemiphakathi ehlukene, njengoba izimo zengqondo eziphathelene nokudla kocansi kanye nobuhlobo bomsebenzi. Imiphakathi eminingi inezindlela zayo ezithile mayelana nobulili; abambalwa abathandekayo nabasensimini, kodwa abanye abayithandi.

Ucwaningo lwe-2012 CNN lwalukhombisa ukuthi inani elikhulu lamaMelika linesibopho samalungelo angqingili. Ku-2015, inhlolovo yabantu baseJapane ngaphezu kwalokho bathole ingxenye enkulu ehlanganisiwe.

Izisusa zenkolo zokumelana

Le ngxenye ibhalwe njenge-manifestation noma i-Remark article ethi umqondo we-Wikipedia umhleli mayelana nendaba. Kufanele usize ngokuyikopisha ibe yi-11 encyclopedic, uyiqinise. (Julayi 2015) (Funda ukuthi uzokhipha nini lesi sici esithile esithile se-template)

Buka ubulili bobulili bomuntu

Izinhlobo eziningi zezinkolo, ngisho nezinkolo zaseMpumalanga kanye no-Faiths azikhuthazi ubulili. UbuKristu bevangeli, ubuKatolika, i-Mormonism, ubuJuda bama-Orthodox, namaSulumane, liqukethe umbono wokuthi ubulili buyisono futhi izindinganiso zokuziphatha ziyancipha.

Ukuphikiswa kwamaKristu

Lesi sigaba sidinga ukukhula ndawonye ngokusebenzisa: isigatshana esincane Ukuthola indawo yalesi Sonto LamaKatolika kule nkinga, "sibone futhi" ekungqingili naseSontweni LamaKatolika; ukungavumelani kwamaKatolika kudlulisela okungaphezu kweLevitikusi kanye namaRoma futhi kuhilelekile ingxabano yezimiso zabo inyunyana nabathandekayo.Ungasiza ngokunikela. Ingxoxo ingase ibekwe ekhasini lezingxoxo. (May 20-16)

Amavesi avela eTestamente Elidala avimbela umfana "amanga amanengi amaPauline akhulunywa ngokumelene nabesilisa nabesilisa ubulili. AmaKristu akhetha isimo sendabuko mayelana nobungqingili avumela ukutadisha kwalezo zici kusukela ekubambeni uNkulunkulu okuphambene nobulili obufanayo, kanti amaKristu adinga isimo esivulekile empeleni acabange ukuthi kungani lezi zindatshana eziqondile zibhekisela ezimweni ezithile, isibonelo njengokuhlukunyezwa noma ukudlwengulwa, futhi mhlawumbe mhlawumbe ungalingani ubungqingili.

Ukuphikiswa kwamaSulumane

Ziyingozi ngezansi:

Iseluleko: ama-Islam nokuma

I-Sodomy Ibhekwa njengonecala futhi ingavunyelwe emazweni amaningi amaSulumane, njengoba kuvezwe umthetho weSharia, futhi uphethe isigwebo sokufa eSaudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Sudan naseJemen.

Isijeziso sokufa sagcwaliswa yi-Afghanistan ngaphansi kweTaliban. EGibhithe, amadoda angqingili esesidlangalaleni ashushiswa ngaphansi kwemithetho yonke yokuziphatha. Ngakolunye uhlangothi lwalusebenza eTurkey ngenxa ye-1858.

E-Saudi Arabia, isijeziso sobungqingili singaba ukusetshenziselwa umphakathi, kepha thina, uhulumeni wesifundazwe angasebenza ngezijeziso ezahlukene - isib. Izijeziso, isikhathi sejele, kanye nokubekwa uphawu - njengamanye okukhethwa kukho, ngaphandle uma kubonakala sengathi i-LGBT abesilisa nabesifazane yizinkampani ezilukhuni ezivela emphakathini kusukela ekubambeni iqhaza ekuqhubeni umphakathi we-LGBT. I-Iran yisimo sokufeza inani lezizakhamuzi zalo. Ngisho noma ngabe ubungqingili banda kakhulu phakathi kweqembu likaPastun e-Afghanistan, ngemuva kokuwa kweTaliban, ubungqingili babuyela kulowo oye wahlawuliswa izigwebo zasejele, izigwegwe, kanye nobudlova ngaphandle kwezimali ezithile.

Izinhlangano eziningi zamalungelo abantu, isibonelo njenge-Human Connections ezibandakanya abantu abadala abavunyelwe icala. Amazwe agcizelela ukuthi le Mithetho iyadingeka ukuze kugcinwe ukuziphatha kwamaSulumane nokufaneleka. Kulawo mazwe anenqwaba yabantu baseSulumane iLebanon neTunisia banezinhlangano ezifuna ukuthola umthetho.

Ukuphikiswa okungokomoya kwamaNdiya naseMpumalanga Asia

Nokuzibandakanya ngokocansi, kokubili ubulili bobulili obufanayo kanye noTaoism, nobungqingili eChina

Kuloluhlu lwezinkolo ezivela eNdiya, njengeHindu, Buddhism, Jainism neSikhism, izimfundiso zibonakala ngokuqhathaniswa nenye yamasiko ka-Abraham. Ngokuphambene nezinkolo, kuboniswa ubungqingili. U-Vasubandhu wanezela omunye wemitholampilo eyayivinjelwe ngenxa yalokhu kuhlanganiswa namakhasimende, kanye neDalai Lama esho ukuthi imvelo ihlose ukuxhumeka ngaphandle kokubambezela ubuhlobo bobulili obufanayo. Ubungqingili bukholelwa ukuthi buphikisana nokuziphatha kweSikh, njengoba kungenjalo kungakhulunywa emibhalweni yeSikh futhi kusukela ku-Sikhs bamenywa ukuba bashade, kodwa le nto ayicatshangwa ukuthi ibalulekile. Ku-2005the Head Cleric walesi sikhungo sase-Akal Takht ulahla izinyunyana ezifanayo zobulili, amaHindu ahlanganiswa, ngaphandle komzimba womuntu olawulayo, kodwa nokho ama-swamis amaningi aqhathanisa nombono wobulili obufanayo obungokomoya ohlangothini lwe-2004, kanye nabancane bawakhuthaza. Ayikho inkomba yobungqingili emibhalweni yamaHindu kanye nendaba, kodwa kusukela ubuHindu bakholelwa ukuthi kuyumsebenzi ukushada futhi babe nezinhlangano zezingane eziye zacatshangelwa ukuthi zilinganiselwe.

Scientologist ukumelana

umdali Scientologist L. Ron Hubbard kusigaba Ubungqingili yokuphazamiseka kwengqondo futhi paraphilia (kamuva ngokuthi njengoba "yobuhlobo bobulili obuphendukezelwe"), kokukhuluma yanamuhla umbhalo zengqondo nangokwengqondo amabhuku ukhuthaze ngombono wakhe. ngabanye Gay belulekwa a 1.1. On ithoni Hubbard sika ezingokwengqondo, futhi UHubbard wakhuthaza isiko lesimanje ukuba lihlasele indaba "yokuphambene ngokobulili" (okubandakanya ubungqingili), ukubikezela ukuthi "kubaluleke kakhulu, uma umuntu efisa ukuyeka ukuziphatha okubi nokuhlukunyezwa kwezingane.

Isihloko se-2004 esivela eSt. Petersburg Times sabika ukuthi iSonto lichaza umshado njengomshado phakathi kwendoda nomfana. Ngonyaka owodwa ngemuva kokuphendula omunye umbuzo ngokuqondene nesimo seSonto ngobungqingili, iSonto LamaScientology e-2005 lathi: "I-Church of Scientology ayisho ukuthi izifiso zobulili zithandwa yini.

Impilo

Buka futhi: izinkinga ze-LGBT emithi

Ukuhlolisisa ukutadisha e-UK kusikisela ukuthi kubonakala sengathi ubufakazi obuncane bukhona ngoba izifundo mhlawumbe azizange zifake ingxenye eyodwa eqenjini lezibalo lapho kufanele zenze izinqumo mayelana nokulingana ngokobulili, ubungqingili, abesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabesifazane. Ukuhlaziywa okutholakala ekuhlolweni okwamanje ku-UK, akukho umehluko mayelana nezimo ezinkulu zempilo phakathi kwabesilisa nabesifazane be-LGBT namuhla futhi nabantu abajwayelekile, kodwa impilo yabantu bonke be-LGBT ibonakala ibuthakathaka, kodwa ngaphandle kolwazi oluthile izimo ezinkulu kanye ezivamile, isikhathi eside noma i-cancer. Ucwaningo lubhekisela ezinkingeni ezithathwa yinkathi encane, isibonelo njengesibonelo se-LGBT ezibhekiswe ekuhlosweni njengokwenzela ukudabuka, ukuzibulala nezinye izinkinga zempilo yengqondo ekukhuleni, ekubelethweni, ekuhlaselweni nasekubandlululweni. Ucwaningo olulodwa oluthatha umthelela wesikhathi eside wokudakwa ngokweqile emayunivesithi, '' kanye nokucwaninga kwezenhlalakahle sekugxile ngendlela abesilisa nabesifazane be-LGBT abakwazi ukubhekana namasu ajwayelekile ukuze bathole impilo, kanye nemiphumela yayo siqu.

Izishoshovu ezimbalwa ze-LGBT zithi ubuchwepheshe bokuthuthukisa i-LGBT phezulu buholela ezinkingeni zempilo ngokomzwelo ngaphakathi kokuvuthwa, kanye nezithiyo zokuthola impilo efanelekile njengabantu abadala abakunikela ngempilo; kodwa bathi i-LGBT amalungelo omthetho asemqoka kakhulu ekunciphiseni ukuguquguquka kwezinkinga zezokwelapha nokuqinisekisa ukusetshenziswa kwamathuluzi okunakekela impilo. Emuva ku-09 eChristian LGBT ababhalisile isikhalazo esibhekene nokuhlukumeza kahle kwe-LGB baseCanada kwenzeka ukuthi banganaki iziphathimandla, bephule amalungelo abo abesilisa nabesifazane be-LGBT. Izishoshovu zikhanyisa ukulindela isikhathi esingapheli kunabo bonke abesilisa nabesifazane be LGB, besebenzisa izigameko ezinkulu zomkhuhlane kanye negciwane lesandulela ngculaza kanye nokuphakamisa izinga lokudakwa ngokweqile, ukuzibulala nokusebenzisa imithi.

Ukuphikiswa emazweni ahlukene

Le ngxenye ibhalwe njenge-manifestation noma i-Remark article ethi umqondo we-Wikipedia umhleli mayelana nendaba. Kufanele usize ngokuyikopisha ibe yi-11 encyclopedic, uyiqinise. (Julayi 2015) (Funda ukuthi uzokhipha nini lesi sici esithile esithile se-template)

Belarus

Ngisho umbiko we-2014 olungele ukuvela e-United Kingdom, ngaphansi kweziphathimandla ezihlangene ze-Conservative kanye ne-Liberal Democrat ye-2010-2015, ukwanda kwezinkathazo ngokuphathelene nokwelapha kwe-LGBT eBelarus:

Ngisho neqembu le-LGBT likhuthazwe ukuhlukunyezwa ngu-regimen ku-2013. Ngisho noMnyango Wezobulungisa wenqabe ukubhaliswa kwamakilasi e-LGBT, kanti futhi amalungu omphakathi we-LGBT afakaze njalo eqondiswa amabutho ezokuphepha futhi abangelwa ukubuza imibuzo. Amaphoyisa asongela ukuwagxeka ukuba azise abangani kulezi zizwe, noma ngisho nabasebenza nabo. I-nightclub e-Minsk neVitebsk yayisiteji, futhi nabo bonke abakhona babefakwe futhi 'imininingwane yabo iqoqwe. Ama-nightclub onke ayevaliwe. Iviki le-Gay Pride eMinsk liphazanyiswe emaphoyiseni aphikisana nabanikazi bezindawo ukuze bathole ngesikhathi sesibili esedlule. Iziphathimandla zahlasela lezo zenzo ezenzeke, kanye nohulumeni wacela isikhalazo sokuthola idolobha lonke.

India

Mayelana no-Okthoba i-6, i-1860, i-sodomy yayivunyelwe eNdiya Lokhu kugwetshiwe ngokungavumelani nomthethosisekelo ku-'09 eNkantolo eNkulu yaseDelhi, kodwa, kuqinisekisile uDisemba 2013 ngesigwebo seNkantolo Ephakeme. Yayisemthethweni yiNkantolo Ephakeme 6 September 2018.

Russia

Izishoshovu ze-LGBT eMoscow, ezimbili zika-Mashi 2013

Ukuphikisa emnyangweni we-LGBT Ukunyakaza kakhulu eRussia, njengokungaphezu kwe-Kremlin. UMongameli uVladimir Putin wanikezela umthetho ku-2012 ukuthi imilayezo yezobugebengu mayelana nezinkinga ze-LGBT, ukuyibiza ngokuthi "i-propaganda yama-gay". Akungekho emthethweni ukutshela izingane ukuthi zivamile noma ezivamile. Lokhu kwakungamanye amazwe aseNtshonalanga anamalungu amaningi abantu ase-US futhi futhi iWestern Europe ifuna ukuxoshwa kwama-Olimpiki ase-2014 Winter at Sochi. Noma kunjalo uMengameli Putin wathembisa ukuthi abagijimi bayadunyiswa, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kwenzekani futhi akukho okwenzekile.

Umthetho wachazwa njengokwamukela umphakathi we-LGBT waseRussia "ekubeni yiqembu eliyinkimbinkimbi elinezitha ezithintekayo izitha zombuso", futhi kwacaciswa njengengxenye eyinhloko emgodini wezobudlova be-Anti Gay ngezinhlangano ezihlukahlukene ze-neo-Nazi (isibonelo , I-Occupy Pedophilia), leyo njongo ihlose intsha yobungqingili futhi ibuye ihambisane nayo, ithumele i-YouTube izenzo zabo zokuhlasela ngokuphambene nezingane ze-LGB, eziye zaholela ekudluleleni kwezingane ezihlukahlukene ze-LGB eRussia, okungahlolwa njalo kuhulumeni , ebabeka ngokuthi "izinyathelo zomphakathi ezilwa nezono zomphakathi".

i-United Kingdom

Emuva ku-1988, iBritish Conservative Party, eyayisesikhundleni sikaHulumeni okwamanje, yanikeza i-Section 28 ukuthi ithi uhulumeni wesifunda akufanele "ngokugqugquzela ubungqingili noma ukushicilela izinto ngenhloso yokugqugquzela ubungqingili" futhi izikole azigcinanga " ukugqugquzela imfundiso yokwamukeleka kobulili obufanayo ", echaza amalungu omndeni kanye nabazali abangqingili ukuba babe" ebuhlotsheni bomndeni ozenza sengathi ".Ukusesha umphumela wokuhlola ulwazi mayelana nokuqonda ngokomoya ezifundeni zemfundo kubonise ukuxhumana kanye nokuzuza ngezinga ukuxhashazwa ngokobulili kanye nabangane, ngaphezu kokukhula kwesibindi nokuzibulala phakathi kwabantu be-LGBT abazama ukubuyela ngokokuziphatha ngokobulili babo. Ku-1987, '' U-Thatcher wanezela ngokuthi "iziphathimandla zezemfundo ezinzima nakwesobunxele" bebezifundise umbuso ngokufundisa ngokuqondile indalo encane "izibalo zesayensi yezombangazwe", "izibalo zokulwa nobuhlanga" nokutshela abafundi bazo ukuthi "banelungelo lokungena gay", esikhundleni sokuthi "bafundiswe ukuhlonipha izindinganiso zokuziphatha zendabuko".

Kodwa, naphezu kokuphikisana nama-Conservatives, isibonelo uDavid Cameron, iSigaba 28 sitholakala kuhulumeni wezabaSebenzi ngaphansi kukaTony Blair.

Emuva ngoJuni 2009, uDavid Cameron, nakuba ayezama ukusebenza njengoNdunankulu wesiBili, ubelokhu ecasula amadoda nabesifazane futhi waxolisa ngokusemthethweni ukuveza umthetho owawube yiphutha.

Emuva ku-2013 inyunyana yayisemthethweni ngaphansi komqondisi kaCameron, ukuthi uCameron wachaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esibalulekile phambili" futhi wathi wayecabanga ukuthi "kulungile ukuthi abantu abathandana nabo kufanele bakwazi ukushada".

Izwi eliphikisanayo nokuphikisana kwe-LGBT e-UK manje liza eSontweni laseNgilandi ngaphakathi kwenkinga yobumbano obungqingili. Abasebenzi abanikezwa umthetho ku-2005 ukufaneleka kwabalingani be-sam esex ukuba bafake ubudlelwane bomphakathi, noma kunjalo babengenakwenzeka nje esontweni noma bathiwa "umshado." Ngisho neSonto laseNgilandi lalifaniswa nalokhu kuhlangene kukaHulumeni ihlose (lokhu kuphathwa kwafinyelela esiphethweni ngo-Meyi 2015) ukwandisa lokhu kube "amalungelo agcwele omshado."

I-British National Party ishintshile isigaba sayo sokuqalwa kabusha kwe-Recriminalization ekwandiseni imithethonqubo yomnyango we-28, okwenza kube kuvunyelwe ukuveza ubungqingili ngokuqondile ekuxhumaneni okuxhumana nabantu. Ku-1999, ibha ye-Admiral Duncan, isiteshi sokuqhathanisa ubungqingili eSoor eLondon, sibheke phezulu njengengxenye yomzamo wamaphekula neNational Socialist Movement kanye neBritish National Party (BNP), uDavid Copeland; cishe abantu abangu-3 babulawa, futhi i-70 ikhubazekile noma yalimala ngombhomu wezipikili ovela kwibha.

I-united states

Kusukela kuma-1950 e-United States, ubungqingili obamukelekayo bube yinto embi. Ama-Legislature esizweni ngasinye ayedlulisele umthetho ngokuziphatha kobulili Iningi ikakhulukazi, ngaphambili kwalokho. Kuwo wonke Abezombusazwe iMpi Yomshoshaphansi ngokuvamile wachaza ongqingili ngokuthi "amavukelambuso" ukuthi yoniwa ubuzwe zokuphepha, futhi wachaza Communist Ababezwelana noma mhlawumbe ngisho ikholomu Communist wesihlanu. McCarthy ukusetshenziselwa emacaleni ngobungqingili. Senator Kenneth Wherry izinkathazo obala ukuthi uJoseph Stalin lase lithole uhlu Ongqingili ezindaweni zamandla kagesi ku-Adolf Hitler, wacabanga ukuthi u-Stalin wayehlose ukusebenzisa ukuhlukumeza laba bantu ekusebenzeni ngokuphambene ne-US ukuthola i-Soviet regimen. Umbiko we-1950 Owenziwe ngeKomidi elincane leSenate Ngaphezu kwalesi sikhathazo, irekhodi ukutholakala kwama-homosexual akufanelekile Iziphathimandla zemisebenzi ikakhulukazi kusukela "kulabo abahlanganyela ezenzweni ezengeziwe ze-More ezisetshenziselwa ukhiye wobulili obungqingili basezombusazwe baseMelika kusukela amathuluzi athola kunamandla ahlulekile Kunalokho.

Unkulunkulu wothando onkulunkulu bamaGreki nezinkolo ngaphakathi kwendlu yakhe, isibonelo i-Erotes: i-Eros, i-Himeros ne-conjointly i-Pothos ibhekwa njengabantu abathandekayo bonke uthando phakathi kwamadoda. U-Eros ukuqala ezinye zezintandokazi onkulunkulu abenza izinhlamvu ngaphakathi kokuxhumana okukodwa kwe-homo-erotic, ukuhlanganiswa kwezinto eziyingqayizivele kanye neHermes, ephikisana nezici zobuhle (nokuthembeka), i-potency, eceleni kwesitayela, ngokweqile, kubalandeli besilisa . Phakathi kwezingqungquthela zikaSappho, unkulunkulu wamaGreki ubizwa ngokuthi umphathi wazo zonke izinsizwa. U-Aphroditus ubeyingunkulunkulu waseGrithani ephuma eKhupro, emlandisweni owawusukela wakhule waba udumo njengobumbano wamaGreki indodana kaHermes noNkulunkulu wamaGreki.

Ku-Ovid's Metamorphosis Iphis iza nokuguqulwa kobulili.

Ngokusho kweBhuku XII kuwo wonke ama-Ovid's Metamorphoses, i-Lapith Umdlandla waseThesaly, uCaeneus, wayengumuntu we-transgender. Wayebizwa ngokuthi uCaenis, intombazane yase-Atrax.

Isi-Norse

"Freyr" (1901) evela kuJohannes Gehrts.

I-sagas esivela egameni lesiJalimane ayihlanganisi noma yiziphi izinkolelo zobungqingili bobulili obufanayo noma obungqingili, futhi azikhombisi abantu abathintekayo be-LGBT, namanje ngokuvamile azibandakanyi amacala amabili noma amabili okuthunywe ngu-guys ummangalelwa ukuba abe ngumlingani osebenzayo ngaphakathi kobulili, bekholelwa "ukuziphatha okungenamthetho" kanye nengozi ekumeni komuntu ngokufa noma umholi.

Yize kunjalo, akukaze kucacile ukuthi uNorse unkulunkulu, uNorse God of fertility, uzokwenyuka ngokuphakamisa lokho okweqembu lamakholi, ngisho nokuboniswa ngumlando weGesta Danorum. U-Odin ucatshangelwa ukuthi uyakwazi ukuthola i-seiðr, '' uhlobo olunamandla okungakholelwa ukuthi omnyama ukuzama ukukwenza futhi lubekwe uphawu lwamantombazane. [citation needed] cishe umkhuba wezinhlelo ezithintekayo ezingasebenzi, ngokuhlanganyela u-Odin wayehlekwa yilezi zikhathi ezithile ezicacile.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuhlukahluka kwalabo onkulunkulu baseNorse kuphumelela ekutheni inzalo ikwazi ukwenza ucansi Kungathi uLoki, unkulunkulu wezinkohlakalo, wazihlukanisa njengentombazane. '' waphenduka futhi, ngokulandela ubulili nawo wonke uSvaðilfari, wabeletha. Impendulo yendoda kumfana othile obeletha abantwana kubonakala sengathi ihlazo njalo eScandinavia, ngokuhlanganyela amaqiniso ambalwa athi uLoki usalokhu engabesilisa nabesifazane.

I-Celtic

Ezingqungqutheleni ze-Celtic izinhlangano zamaLesbian zikhona. Abahlaziyi bamaGreki nabamaRoma babonisa ubulili phakathi kwabantu, ngokwesibonelo, pedophilia, kwizizwe zeCeltic. kodwa, uPeter Chicheri uthi ku-innovative yeCeltic: amandla kagesi, ama-paradigms, ohlangothini lwezindlebe zokuthi u-gay isithwathwa sehlwaywe empucuko yeCeltic ngenxa yokuguqulwa kobuKristu, futhi kubonisa noma yikuphi okuhlangenwe nakho kobulili okungezona ukuzala okuye kwaphela ekuqothulweni ezindabeni eziyinkimbinkimbi.

Okunye ukufundwa kwamathekisthi ngisho nokufunda izihloko ze-LGBT, njengoMfanekiselo, ubuntu kanye nabafowethu-abazalwane abakhulayo uCúchulainn noFerdiadh bahumushe njengenhlangano ye-BI). lapho bephoqelelwe ukuba balwe nokunye okunye okunye, '' uFerdiadh ukhulumela ukuxoxa kwabo ngemibhede, '' futhi kuye kwacatshangwa ukuba babe nakho konke okulandelayo ngokulandela ubusuku bokuqala obunzima bokubamba nokulwa. Ngesinye isikhathi izikhathi ezingu-3, uCúchulainn unqobe uFerdiadh ngokubhoboza isikhala sakhe esikhaleni eceleni kwe "isikhali" sakhe esingavamile uGáe Bulg. Lokhu kulandisa kuye kwabangela ukuqhathaniswa namaGrike "abathandi bezilwane", ngokuhlangenwe nakho kukaCúchulainn ngokusabela ekudluleleni kukaFerdiad ngokungafani nokulila kwama-Achille wePatrocles.

Ama-mythologies ase-Asia

  1. Werner.

Imfundiso yamasiko aseShayina ibilokhu imelwe "njengabacebile ebufakazini obuphathelene nobuqingili" ikakhulukazi inkolelo yenkolo. Uthando olufanayo lobulili obufanayo lwalukholelwa ukuthi luvela eningizimu enhle, ngakho-ke ubulili bubizwa ngokuthi "ukuphela kwaseNingizimu". Ama-dragons ase-Chinese "aziqhenya njalo ngobuhlobo bobulili namadoda asebekhulile", isibonelo esisodwa esivela emlandweni we "Umlimi Omdala ohlangothini lwe-conjointly Dragon", lapho umlimi oneminyaka engamashumi ayisithupha enqotshwa khona udrako odlula, okuholela emanxebeni ukusuka ekungeneni nasekulumeni okudinga usizo lwezokwelapha. Igama lakhe lisho ukuthi "unkulunkulukazi". Ngokusho kokuthi "I-Tale yale-Rabbit God" ngaphakathi kwe-Zi Bu Yu, u-Tu Er Shen ekuqaleni kwakukhona umuntu owaziwa ngokuthi ngu Hu Tianbao, i-WHO yahlaselwa ngumhloli omuhle wesibindi esiFundazweni saseFujian .

Kwaphela izinkulungwane zeminyaka, ukuhlukunyezwa kwamadoda kwaphawulwa ezincwadini ngokubhekisela kwizibalo ze-2 ezinomlando ezivela emlandweni wokuqala. okuyinhloko kwakunguMizi Xia ngakho-ke ipaki elidliwe yizinkulungwane ezabelane naye nomthandi wakhe, umlando othile, uDuke Ling we-Wei. Owesibili kwakunguNkosi Long isimiso, i-WHO yaqinisekisa ukuthi inkosi yase-King of Wei engenamagama ihlale izinikele kuye ngokuzihlola ngokwakhe ngezinhlanzi ezincane ukuthi iNkosi ingabhakabhaka uma kunenhlanzi enkulu. kanti yilowo nalowo uMizi Xia noMninimandla Long Long bebekhona ngempela, akukho lutho oluqondakalayo mayelana nabo ezindabeni ezikude kakhulu, futhi ukutholakala kwabo ezincwadini zesiShayina kwakubaluleke kakhulu kubalingiswa abaqambayo abaye bakhonza njenge-archetypes yothando lwangqingili.

Japanese

Ngokusho kwezingane zaseJapane nezinganekwane, ukuhlukunyezwa kwasungulwa emhlabeni jikelele nguShinu No Hafuri nomthandi wakhe u-Ama No Hafuri. Lawa ayeyizinceku zenkulunkulu wama-aboriginal, mhlawumbe unkulunkulu welanga onkulunkulu baseJapane. Ngemva kokushona kweShinu, ama-Amazi bazibulala ngenxa yesimiso, ngakho-ke laba babetshelwe emangcwabeni afanayo. Ekuchazeni okuthile ngale ndaba, ilanga lahluleka ukukhanya endaweni yokungcwaba kwaze kwaba yilapho abathandi behlelwa phansi futhi bangcwatshwe ngokungahambisani, nakuba noma ngabe icala noma ilanga lalingekho ngenxa yobungqingili akucaci.

Kwesinye isici, unkulunkulu waseJapane uphindela ekuxabaneni kanye nomfowabo uSusanoo emhumeni, echitha iplanethi yemini nokuphila. ukuze u-coax unkulunkulu waseJapane avele emhumeni, u-Ame No Uzume, u-dance no-dance, owenza umdanso wobulili obhekene nomdlavuza obhekene nokuvelela isitho sakhe sobulili nesifuba sakhe, nokuhlonipha ubuNkulunkulu baseJapane ukuba bababaze. Lapho i-Amaterasu iphuma emhumeni, i-transgender Kami Ishi Kori Dome yayilibazise isibuko esingaphezu kwendalo, ngakho-ke ukuhlanganiswa komdanso nokuzindla kwakhe kuyathandeka ubuNkulunkulu baseJapane kangangokuthi akaqapheli imimoya ehlukile yokuvala umhume wamangcwaba ngemuva kwakhe.

Izinkulunkulu zeShinto zikhathazeka zonke izici zokuphila ezikhulunywe ngazo, kanye nokulandelana kwe-shudo (pederasty yendabuko). UMUNTU omdala ongumuntu ongathandabuko wesithandwa besilisa nabesilisa ocansini, "uShudo Daimyojin", ukhona kubantu abathile amahlelo eShinto, kodwa akuyona indawo engumakhelwane we-Shinto.

Enye iKami ehlobene nokuhlukunyezwa ngokobulili obufanayo noma ngokobulili ihlanganisa: Shirabyoshi, wesifazane noma i-transmasculine Kami, echazwe njengomuntu wesigamu-umuntu, nenyoka. baxhunyaniswe namakhokheli aseShinto afana negama elifanayo, i-WHO ngezinye iinkhathi i-feminine (noma ngokuvamile i-transgender amadoda) futhi yenza imidanso yemikhosi endodeni yangasese yangasese yomphakathi; I-Oyamakui, umoya wezintaba we-transgender ovikela ukuhweba nokubeletha; no-Inari, iKami wezolimo nelayisi, i-WHO ihlukaniswa njengezihlobo ezihlukahlukene, izethulo ezivelele ziyingane yokudla yasesifazane, i-AN yamuva ethwele irayisi, i-ANd i-epicene engenakufa . I-Inari ihlobene ngokuhlobene nezimpungushe kanye ne-Kitsune, imimoya eguquguqukayo yemimoya ye-Fox trickster. I-Kitsune ivame ukuzifihla njengamantombazane, ngokuzimela ngokobulili babo beqiniso, ukuze bakhohlise abantu besilisa ubuhlobo bobulili nabo. Inkolelo evamile eJapane yasendulo yayiwukuthi noma yikuphi intombazane eyayibhekene nayo yodwa, ikakhulukazi ekugubungeni noma ebusuku, ingaba ipukane.

IsiHindu

  • Shiva noNkulunkulu wamaHindu phakathi nohlobo lwe-Ardhanarisvara
  • Isihloko esiyinhloko: izingqikithi ze-LGBT emasikweni amaHindu
  • Bheka futhi: Izihloko ze-LGBT namaHindu

"" Umphakathi wamaHindu wawunehlelo lokusika elibala lalaba bantu esikhathini esidlule. njengamanje ukuthi sesifake ngaphansi kwelebula elilodwa 'i-LGBT', kunenani lokudideka nokunye okungafani okutholile kufihliwe. "

UGopi Ravi Shankar Madurai ku-National Queer Conference 2013

Imfundiso yasendulo ihlanganisa izimo ezingenakulinganiswa zobuningi Ubulili, ukubonakalisa ngezimo ezihlukahlukene njengezocansi, noma mhlawumbe i-intermixture ukwakha i-epicene noma izidalwa. Amankulunkulu aguqula ubulili noma afakaze ngaphakathi kwe-Avatar ye-gender yabo ehlukile ngokokunciphisa inhlangano. Izidalwa ezingezona ezingokoqobo zokuzibuyisa ubuchwepheshe zenza imiphumela yezibusiso noma iziqalekiso, noma ngenxa yemiphumela yokuphindwa kabusha.

Imfundiso yamaHindu ihlanganisa izigameko noma kuphi lapho kunesidingo Umgomo ongcwele unikezwa Ubudlelwane balaba buxhumeke kakhulu. ngezikhathi ezithile lezi zixhumanisi zilahlwa onkulunkulu kodwa ngezikhathi ezidinga zidinga i-boon yabo.

Ngaphandle kwezingqikithi zokuhluka komzimba nezokucansi ezivunyiwe yi-Hinduism enkulu, ukusesikhathini abafundi nabaqhudli bezintambo ze-Queer baye bagcizelela izihloko ze-LGBT noma bazinikela ezindabeni ezithathwa njengabangenayo i-subtext. Ukungavumelani kukhiqizwa uphenyo mayelana nokubaluleka kwezindaba.

I-Buddhist

Bheka futhi: izihloko ze-LGBT nobuBuddha

Emibhalweni yesiko, yamaBuddha akahlukanisi ubulili obufanayo. Ukuzivocavoca kusuka ekubhekisweni, indlela yokuthuthukiswa okungokwenkolo. Imithetho eminingi yamaBuddhist yokuziphatha ivela ezindabeni nakuLo, futhi izinganekwane ziyiqiniso nangombono wamaBuddha we-LGBT amadoda nabesifazane. ukuze wenze Umfanekiso, imithetho eyala ubupristi be-LGBT emaqenjini ambalwa kakhulu avela ekuchazeni kwalesi siqephu saseMahavagga. E-Pandakavathu ingxenye yomsebenzi wangempela, Amathebuli ngokuphathelene ne "pandaka" (abantu abesilisa ocansini noma abesilisa) bahlangene. ngokulandelana kakhulu, izindlela zokuqala ze-Pancake ukuthi iqembu lezindlovu zezindlovu, nabagcini babasaqalayo abaceli abacela abantu eklasini ngalinye ukuba "bazingcolise". nakuba kuguqulwa ngamunye futhi isikhathi ngaphandle komsebenzi, ama-Experiences akha i-attribut yezinkampani eziningi ezibhekiselele ekubhekiseni amakhokhelwe, ngisho nokuholela kuBuddha zibe amaphakethe we-tavern ebupristi bakho.

Ngokuhambisana noCabezón kanye noGreenberg, lesi sici asiqashiwe ukubeka abantu, futhi izindaba zeBuddha zihlanganisa ukubonisana okufanayo kocansi okungewona ocansi. Konke lokhu kubonakala ikakhulukazi ebufakazini bokuthi "Jataka" (izindaba zamaNdiya zendabuko yaseBuddha ezedlule), lapho uBuddha ehlala njalo ehambisana nomuntu ozinikele. Ezincwadini eziningana bazobuyiselwa ndawonye njengemali yezidalwa "ukugubha nokuxubana ndawonye, ​​ujabule kakhulu, ikhanda, ikhanda, ukugcoba uphondo." Nakuba mhlawumbe kungaboniswa ngenxa yothando, lezo zihlobo phakathi kwabafana ziyakhonza, futhi zifanisa kanye nazo zonke izinyunyana ezinzima kumakhosikazi ahlakaniphile. UHarvey nokho, akavumelani futhi uthi yikuphi uthando lokubhekisela futhi mhlawumbe hhayi nje ukubambisana ngempela.

E-Thai Theravada Buddhism, imibiko ibonisa ukuthi "ubungqingili buvela njengesiphambeko se-karmic sokuphula imibhalo yobuBuddha ngokungaziphathi kahle ngokobulili" esikhathini esingaphambene nesimo se-Thai Buddhist sikazizwa futhi ukuthi umfundi u-Ananda uzokuba nezimo eziningi njengowesifazane, futhi ekugcineni isikhathi esiphila ngaso sonke isikhathi sokuba se-sex-u-Ananda esidumile ngenxa yesimo sabo sengqondo, futhi sithandwa kakhulu futhi sidumile. Kulandisa kwe-1 yezinto ezimbalwa zokuphila, u-Ananda waphenduka waba i-yogi eye yawela ngokujulile kangaka enothando olujulile eneNaga, inyoka inkosi yaseNdiya, eyadutshulwa uhlobo lobubuntwana. Ukuxhumeka kwaguquka kwaba yinto engcolile, okwenza u-Ananda ahlukanise ukuxhumana, ukuze avimbele ukuguquka.

Ngokomlando, indoda ethandwayo ikhululwe Kuye eJapane kumdali weli qembu leQiniso leQiniso leSonto (iShingon) lamaBuddha ase-Japanese esoteric, kuKukai. Izazi-mlando zibeka ukuthi lokhu kungenzeka ukuthi akunembile, kodwa ngoba uKukai ube yiqembu elithandayo lemithetho. Ezinye ze-Bodhisattvas zishintsha amantombazane emzimbeni ohlukahlukene, okwenza ukuba kuhlotshaniswe okwesikhashana ukuya kwe-transgenderism nobungqingili. I-Guanyin, i-Avalokitesvara, ne-Tara iye yaqondwa ukuthi izethulo zobulili.

Philippines

Emuva ePhilippines, Ikakhulukazi emakoloni Kanye nemibuso, ukulandisa kwalokhu unkulunkulu wokufa, '' Sidapa. USidapa ukhonjiswe njengomuntu omuhle futhi oqinile futhi walwa noNkulunkulu wezimpi, iMacanduc, kanye no-unkulunkulukazi walesi siphepho ukuze athole umculi wezintandokazi: umfana othile. Unkulunkulu wokuhamba waxosha enye yalezi zithixo ezinomusa: UBulan umfana osezulwini. Ukuthandana kwabo kuyoba yindawo ekahle yePederasty. I-fable ikhuluma ngendlela ebuke ngayo lobu buhle bezinyanga futhi yayifuna kodwa ingxabano. Walwa futhi wanqoba unkulunkulukazi futhi bobabili onkulunkulu. Umfana ohlala esibhakabhakeni waxoshwa nguye. Unkulunkulu wokudlula uhlele ukugxeka kanye nama-mermaids ukucula umhawu emkhathini wakho womfana. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ucele izimbali ukuba zenze izimbali ze-candy ne-perfume ze-Bulan, futhi ekugcineni kodwa ngokungafani kakhulu wanikela ngobumnene ezifubeni zokushisa ngakho-ke ukuthi isibhakabhaka somfana siyokwehla ngqo lapho singabelana khona. Izindaba zikhuluma ukuthi iBulan yayinobulungiswa bezinhlanzi ezinzima ezikhulayo zaba yizinwele lapho izinyoni nezinhlanzi zazivame ukubhukuda nokuhamba. USidapa wakhetha lo mfana ukuba abe ngumakoti wakhe wezingane kanye nezinganekwane zezwe kanye nabaningi bamanhlanzi kodwa bacabanga ukuthi bahlala ndawonye belele eMandleni kaMunye. Majaas, kusukela ku-Antique

Ama-mythology ase-Afrika

I-West African, iYoruba kanye noDahomean (Vodun)

Ubungumsunguli wazo zonke izinkolelo zamaDahomey. IZi-Lisa, ezifakwe ngokuhlanganisana nodadewabo ababili kanye nezinkolo zomfowabo uLisa (inyanga) kanye noMawa (ukukhanya kwelanga). Ngohlobo oluhlangene, babheka njenge-intersex noma ubulili obuhlukile (ngokushintsha kwesondo). Ezinye izinkolo ezinamasiko zihlanganisa uNana Buluku, "Umama Omkhulu" owabeletha uLisa noMawa futhi wakhiqiza umhlaba, futhi uqukethe kokubili okwesilisa nabesilisa.

Abantu base-Akan baseGhana banenhlonipho yezinkulunkulu eziqukethe imizimba yabantu. Konke lokhu okufakazela umuntu okufakazela ukuthi kukhona onkulunkulu abanomdlandla noma onotshwala, futhi kuhlanganisa u-Abrao (Jupiter), ngokulandelanayo (i-Mercury), ngokulandelana kanye no-Awo (inyanga).

Ukutholakala kotshwala manje kuyisici esibalulekile samanye amasiko angokwesi-Yoruba namanye ama-Afrika. Abanikazi babo ngokuvamile banamantombazane, kodwa futhi bangasebenza njengabafana abadala, futhi abashadile babhekwa ngokuthi "umakoti" wobunkulunkulu babo ngenkathi bengabanikazi babo. Igama elisetshenziselwa ukubhekisela kubunikazi liza nenkulumo enobudlova obukhulu kakhulu nobulili nakuba kufana ne-Yoruba izinkolo zaseMelika ezithathwe, kodwa azikho ukuxhumana okucatshangwa phakathi kobulili obufanayo nobunini noma umsebenzi wezocansi esikhathini esivamile somsebenzi.

I-Zimbabwean

Izinganekwane zesiShayina zabantu baseZimbabwe zilawulwa Ngomunye umsunguli onguNkulunkulu oyisiqalo, ohlukaniswa ngezigaba zesifazane namadoda.

EGibhithe

Imibhalo yobungqingili ikhona e-Egypt kanye nokwenza okubhaliwe futhi okudwebayo kufanekisela ukulala ngokobulili. Izinsiza ezikhona zikhomba ukuthi ukuxhumana kwe-samesex kwakubhekwa kabi, futhi futhi lobu bulili obungazimele bube yisenzo sokuncintisana samandla nokubusa, omnyama kumamukeli, umbono ovame kakhulu kusuka endaweni yaseMedithera.

Isimo Esivelele Kunazo zonke senzeke emzabalazweni wamandla okubandakanya unkulunkulu wakho wasezulwini uHorus, kanye nomalume wakhe Beka ukuthi unkulunkulu onobungozi wale ndawo egwadule. Ukusungula imizamo yokuqinisekisa ubuhle bakhe kuhlanganisa izindlela zokukhohlisa, ngoba udumisa u-Horus ebusweni bakhe futhi uzama ukungena ngaphakathi. Ukuhluleka, Hlela u-Ejaculates phakathi kwamathanga kaHorus, ngakho uvumela u-Horus ukuba ahlangane nomzimba wakhe. Ubeka ukuthi uhlule amafemu omshuwalense waseHorus "wenza lesi senzo esicasulayo ngaye." UHorus wabe eseyithumela echibini, okusho ukuthi mhlawumbe kungenzeka ukuthi akufanele kucatshangwe ukuthi usetshenziswe yi-Set. i-lettuce, okuyi-Food's preferred (ukuthi inkolelo yaseGibithe i-lettuce yayiphunga elimnandi). Uma i-Set isiphelile i-lettuce baqhubeka bezama futhi babuyisela impikiswano ngesimiso seGibhithe. Onkulunkulu balalela isithembiso sika-Set's sokubusa ngaphakathi kweHorus, naye ubiza ucingo lwakhe kodwa uphendule ngokumelene nolwandle, aluqede isithembiso sakhe. Owonkulunkulu bezwa isimangalo sikaHorus sokubusa i-Set, futhi ubiza umuthi wakhe, futhi uphendula kusukela ngaphakathi. I-Horus ne-Set babeyi-consensual, uma ukusetshenziswa okungalungile, nokusetha kuka-Horus kwenzalo kaHorus kwakha idiski yenyanga kaThoth, ngaleyo ndlela ibe mnandi emiphumeleni. kuze kube sekupheleni kwefa laseGibhithe, futhi futhi umsebenzi wezinyathelo wabhalwa njengezigaba zokuqala.

Ukuzala komuntu ngamunye kubonakaliswe ukuba yingxenye ebalulekile yezinganekwane zaseGibithe, futhi Futhi wayekujabulela ukusebenzisa ukuvuna kokuvuna okunikezwa umkhukula wamanzi omfula iNayile. Lesi sixhumanisi siqale ekubonisweni kwezithombe zobabili onkulunkulu baseNayile, isibonelo, Happy, unkulunkulu woMlambo iNayile, futhi njengoWadj-wer, unkulunkulu weNayile Delta, ukuthi ngisho namadoda aboniswa kanye nazo zonke izici zesifazane ezinjengezifuba ezithandekayo, futhi ezimele ukuzala okuyinto echibi ehambisa.

Ama-Mythologies e-Oceania

  • Abomdabu base-Australia

Abantu bomdabu base-Australia banokholo oluhle kakhulu, kuhlanganise ne-pantheon of gods. Inyoka yenkosi yamanzi u-Ungud ibizwa ngokuthi i-transgender noma i-androgynous. U-Shaman uqaphele u-penise wabo ndawonye usebenzisa u-Ungud, kanye ne-androyny yakhe ikhuthaza isikhathi esithile ukuba abone ukuzithoba komuntu wabo. U-Angamunggi ungomunye unkulunkulu wesinkwa-wendlala-wesifazane, okhulekelwa ngokuba "umniki wokuphila".

Ezinye izidalwa zezinkolelo zase-Australia zihlanganisa uLabarindja, abesifazane abanobuciko obuhlaza okwesibhakabhaka noma "abesifazane besidemoni" kanye nezinwele eziba nomthunzi womusi. Izindaba mayelana nalezi ziveza ukuthi lezi zinsuku zikhulile ngokuphelele ngothando noma ubulili, kanti kanye nomunye umlingisi ophoqeleka ukuba acabange ngaye angase abhubhise, ebonga "imilingo emibi emaginini abo". Ukwengeza ukuthi baye bavezwa njenge-intersex noma gynandrous, besebenzisa ipeni kanye nesiswini. Ukuba nendima yabo edlalwa namadoda ekugqoke izingubo zabesifazane kumelela kuleso siko.

Izinkolo zihlanganisa inqwaba yezinkulunkulu. Abaningi balabo onkulunkulu baxoxisana nabalingani babo bobulili ngokuthi "aikane", igama elizungeze ubungane obukhulu kanye nocansi-uthando, njalo ezimweni eziphathelene nobulili.

UWahineomo, unkulunkulukazi wezinganekwane ezingamaHawaii ogama lakhe lisho ukuthi "owesifazane okhukhulayo", likhonjiswe ekuxhumaneni ndawonye kanye noodadekazi abahlukahlukene u-Hi'iaka noHopoe. Lapho uHi'iaka efunwa ngumyeni kaPele, khona-ke unkulunkulukazi uPele wabulala uHopoe othandekayo kaHi'iaka. Ngaphandle kweWahineomo kanye noHopoe, uHi'iaka wahlangana nobungqingili ndawonye esebenzisa wonke unkulunkulukazi uPoopalae kanye noPele-devotee Omeo. I-Omeo yayiyingxenye yalesi sigameko esasidonsela uPreate Lohiau ngo-Pele ngokushesha nje ngemva kokuhamba kwakhe. Phakathi nakho konke ukuphila kwakhe uLohiau wayengumdlandla wesifazane uPele noPaoa.

Ezinye izinkolo ze-LGBT zasePolynesia Zihlanganisa nabakwa-Pala-Mao noKumi-Kahi abambalwa, kanye nomamakazi wobulili obunqunu u-Haakauilanani, owayengumkhonzi futhi uhlaziyekile lo "unina womhlaba" ongumsungulikazi uPapa kanye naye naye owakwakhe u-Wakea. Izibalo ze-LGBT zikhona ngokwengeziwe emafundisweni asePolynesia, '' njengokwesibonelo isibonelo (indoda) shaman Pakaa kanye nomphathi wakhe oyinhloko no-buff Keawe-Nui-A-'umi, nomdobi owaziwayo uNioleoleki, owayeshade nowesifazane kodwa futhi ubuhlobo noNkulunkulu wezingulube iKamapua'a.

Phakathi kwalabo onkulunkulu, i-Ngaju Dayak yaseBorneo ikhulekela uMahatala-Jata, unkulunkulu we-orrogynous noma we-transgender. Ingxenye yesilisa yalona unkulunkulu nguMahatala, olawula umhlaba oPhezulu, futhi uboniswa njengophondo lokuphumula oluphila ngaphezu kwamafu entabeni-phezulu; insikazikazi yiJata, olawula i-Underworld evela ngaphansi kolwandle njengenyoka yamanzi. Lezi zibonakaliso ezimbili zixhunywe ngebhuloho eliyigugu elibonakalayo elibonakala emhlabeni njengokwenene. UMahatala-Jata ukhonzwa yi-"balian", ama-hierodules wesifazane, kanye nama-shaman "transgir" ama-transgender achazwa ngokuthi "izinyoka zokuphuza amanzi eziye zafika ngesikhathi esifanayo". Abakwa-transgender abafana, "i-manang Bali", batholakala kubantu base-Iban Dayak. Amantombazane ahlukumezekile ukuba abe manang bali angase aqale iphupho lokuba ngowesifazane futhi nokubizwa ngokuthi unkulunkulu / dess Menjaya Raja Manang noma unkulunkulukazi u-Ini. I-Menjaya Raja Manang yaqala ukuba khona njengonkulunkulu wesilisa, kuze kube yilapho umfowabo womfowabo esegula. Lokhu kwashukumisela ukuba uMenjara abe ngumhlengikazi wokuqala wezwe, amvumela ukuba aphulukise udadewabo wakhe, kepha lokhu kukwelashwa kwaphumela ekubeni iMenjara ishintshe ibe ngowesifazane noma i-androgynous being.

Ama-Mythologies aseMelika

  • AmaMaya nama-Aztec

Unkulunkulu waseMeyi uChin, owabikwa kusukela ngekhulu leshumi nesithupha, kuthiwe uqale ukulinganisa isiko lamaMayan futhi wabe esehlotshaniswa nothando lobulili obufanayo. Isibonelo sakhe sakhuthaza imindeni ehloniphekile ukuthenga amadoda amancane njengabathandi bamadodana abo, ekwakheni ubudlelwane obungokomthetho phakathi komshado. Umkulunkulu obalulekile waseMeya owaziwa kakhulu kusukela esikhathini esiyingqayizivele (200-900 AD), okuthiwa yi-Tonsured Maize God, uvame ukuvezwa ebuciko beMaya njengomfana osemncane ohlotshaniswa nobuciko nomdanso, futhi ucatshangelwa ukuba Wenze ' sex wesithathu '.

I-Xochipilli ('Flower Prince') ibilokhu ukuthi unkulunkulu wezithombe, Amageyimu E-Online, Ubuhle, ukudansa, izimbali, ummbila, kanye nomkhondo emlandweni wama-Aztec, kanye nomphathi wabesifazane abangqingili kanye nezifebe.

  • Buka i-Two-spirit

Emuva e-Inuit shamanism, laba bantu ababili babeyi-Akulujjuusi no-Uumarnituq, amadoda afanayo. Lo mbhangqwana ukhethe ukuhlangana nomuntu oyifunayo. Lokhu kuhlangana kubangele ukubeletha ukuthola u-Uumarnituq. Njengoba engazange ahlomile ukuhlinzeka ngezidingo, i-charm yayiphonswe lokho okwashintsha ubulili bakhe banika ubulili ngesisindo sokuhamba nengane. Ngisho ne-Uumarnituq yayinesibopho sokuletha impi njengendlela yokucindezela ngaphezu kwabantu. Unkulunkulukazi we-Sedna angaba ngumsunguli we-Inuit usebenzisa izidalwa zezidalwa. Ama-Shamans aboniswa njenge-hermaphroditic noma ngisho ne-gynandrous nawo ayamkhonza. Izinganekwane ziveza ukuthi uSedna uyinkosikazi yocansi noma abe yocansi, ehlala esikebheni sezilwandle.

Amazwi aseMelika aseMelika ahlanganisa uCoyote ekukhohliseni abalingani bobulili obuseduze nabangqingili. Imimoya emnandi eyengeziwe ingase ivele ibe yinkomba yamantombazane uma kungenjalo noma iziphi iziphakamiso zesipho lapho zifuna ukuheha ingane encane enhle.

I-Voodoo

Ukushiwo konke uBaron Samedi, a.

Ngisho nenani eliphelele lemiphefumulo noma izithixo (la) zikhona eHaiti Zonke lezi zin kungenzeka zibhekwe njengezigaba zabantu njengento eyodwa ngezakhi ezahlukene, kanye nokuxhumeka ezindaweni ezihlukene zokuphila kwansuku zonke.

Amaningi amaningi ahlobene noma adlulisa lokho kusukela kumaGedes naseBarons. Eziningi zazo zihlobene ikakhulukazi nobulili obufanayo noma ubudlelwane be-transgenderism. Lezi zihlanganisa uGhede Nibo, umphefumulo obheka noma ngubani oshabalala omncane. Ngezinye izikhathi kuboniswa ukuthi uyinkosikazi ehudulayo futhi iqhubezela noma ubani ophumelela ekuvelweni kwezinhlobonhlobo ezinhlobonhlobo, ikakhulukazi ukuziphatha okubi kwesithandani noma kwe-transgender kwabesifazane. Amama nobaba bakaGhede Nibo 'yiBaron Samedi noMamane Brigitte; I-Baron Samedi ingaba iphayona lakho lala maGedes kanye namaBarons futhi ingavezwa njengabantu abesilisa nabesifazane, noma i-trans-gender ngokocansi, inika i-tophat kanye nejackethi ye-frock ndawonye nezinye i jeans yabesifazane kanye neziketi. I-Samedi ihamba nesifiso sokwenza "ukunyakaza okungenasiphambano" okuwela emingceleni yobulili futhi kusho ukuziqhenya kokubili ngokobulili obufanayo.

Amabhontshisi Ukubonisa ukubonisa ukuthi yiBaron Lundy kanye noBaron Limba, abaye baba abalandeli futhi bafundisa uhlobo lwe-wrestling ye-homo-eerotic in the faculty, okucatshangelwa ukuthi kuthuthukiswe ukusebenza kahle. UBaron Oua Oua, ohlala njalo ephumelela ukusebenzisa ingane efana nento, wabizwa ngokuthi yi-bar-on "eduze kakhulu ekuhlotshaniswa nobungqingili" kusuka kuVoodoo.

Nenye enye, '' u-Erzulie, Ingabe ihlobene nokuthandwa nokuheha. U-Erzulie angafakazela izakhi ezihlobene ne-LGBT, isibonelo, ubulili obufanayo noma ama-amazonian, kanye nama-female guises. Lapho uhlala emadodeni, lezo zici zingabangela ukuziphatha ngokweqile noma okuthandana no-homo-erotic, lapho kungabangela khona ubulili noma umbono wesilisa kumadodakazikazi. U-Erzulie Freda uthathwa njengomlondolozi wesilisa omdala owayengongqingili, futhi u-Erzulie Dantor uhlobene nezidakamizwa.

I-Santeria kanye no-Candomblé

I-Santería kanye ne-Candomblé beyizinkolo zenkolo yaseJoruba diasporic kanye nekatolika, indawo evamile eNingizimu Melika, ehlanganisa iCuba neBrazil. Izinganekwane zabo zinezinto eziningi ezifanelana nalokhu kweYoruba, nazo zihlanganisa ne-Oríshas (imiphefumulo) yombili, kufana nokuthi (njengoba kukhonjisiwe) ukuthi i-Voodoo yombili.

Esikhathini esisodwa seSantería yaseCuban "pataki", noma i-Nartiative Narrative, unkulunkulukazi wase-Yemaha olwandle unecala lokulala ngokocansi nendodana yakhe uSango. Ukuze amboze ukuhlazeka kwakhe ngaleso sikhathi, wafika emadodaneni akhe amabili, i-Inle kanye no-Abbata, ukubiza ikhaya elisezingeni elwandle, ukusika ulimi lwe-Inle kanye nokuhola u-Abbata oyisithulu. Ngenxa yalokhu kuhlukaniswa nokuzihlukanisa, i-Inle no-Abbata bakhula baba nabangane abathandekayo nabathandi, esimweni sokuveza. Le pataki ingasetshenziselwa ukuchaza umthombo wokungenwa kwezidakamizwa, ukungahambi kahle, nokuzithulu kanye nobungqingili.

Izinganekwane zaseMpumalanga Ephakathi

Izindawo zaseMesopotamiya neKhanani zazihlala Ngisho nemigomo yabo bonke abantu beyilokhu, ejwayele ukuhlanganisa ubufakazi obuqondile kanye nonkulunkulu bamanga kanye nobuntu ngaphansi kwamagama ayingqayizivele.

Kusukela ku-2000 BCE, kubhala abantu abaningi abahlukahlukene abavela ku-unkulunkulukazi uNinmah. Lezi zihlanganisa "owesifazane ongeke abelethe" futhi "ongenalo isilwane sesilisa noma isitho sesifazane", okubhekwa njengobungqingili bobulili obufanayo noma owesifazane. Enki, unkulunkulu oyinhloko, uzothatha labo bantu futhi ahlasele le mi sebenzi isiko ngoba "naditu" (abafundisikazi) kanye no "girsequ" (izinceku eziya enkosini). I-Atrahasis yama-Akkadian epicic ehlanganisa i-iteration elandelana nalokhu kulandisa, lapho u-Enzi ebuza khona ukuthi i-Ninth yenza "isigaba sesithathu" salabo ngubani obesilisa nabesilisa besilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabesifazane, abafazi abangabantwana, kanye "nedimoni lokubamba izinsana".

EMesopotamiya, ukukhulekelwa kwale nkulunkulukazi u-Inanna kwaveza "ukukhala okududuzayo" okubizwa ngo-3rd sex predators okubizwa ngokuthi "gala". Ngokusho kwemibhalo yakudala yaseBabiloni ukuthi laba bapristi baqala ukudalwe ngenhloso yalolu daba ku-Enki unkulunkulu. I-gala embalwa yathatha iziqu zabesifazane, futhi igama ngokwedlulela libonisa "ipeni + i-anus", ihlamba ngokuma kwayo. Umtholampilo wobuhlanga, noma "mina", we-ally androgynous, u-wesithathu-wesilisa noma owesilisa oyintandokazi wesilisa ongase abe yinto engaba yingxenye yomcabango wokuthi manje usuvele ukhululwe ngu-Innana Enki ku-"The Descent of Innana" iphupho. , ukuthi ubulili bale "kurggaru" kanye nabaphristi "assinnu" buye lwaphazamiseka ngokweqile kunkulunkulukazi u-Ishtar, okwenza laba besifazane. Ukuguquka kunganciphisa ubunikazi benkulunkulukazi, kuguqulwe ukuguquka komzwelo noma ukuguqula umzimba.

Inhlangano phakathi kwe-protagonist i-Gilgamesh kanye no-Enkidu wayo "obungane kakhulu" e-Enkidu e-Sumerian Epic kaGilgamesh yahunyushwa ngokuthi yinto yomzimba yocwaningo lwezazi eziningi zanamuhla. U-Enkidu wazalelwa njengomngane wakhe eGilgamesh evela kunkulunkulukazi u-Aruru, naye waphonsa ngendwangu i-harlot. Njengoba uGilgamesh no-Enkidu bebekhulile futhi bemi, uthando lwabo lwothando lwaluyithathwa njenge-monolithic enengqondo, uma kuqhathaniswa nalo lonke uhlobo lwesitayela se-pederastic saseGrisi noma iPheresiya yokuqala.

namaZoroaster

Buka izihloko ze-LGBT no-Zoroastrianism

I-Zoroastrianism yachazwa ngempela ukuthi ikhona "inzondo yowesilisa Eqinisweni imelwe emlandweni wayo: Lapho u-Ahriman," uMoya Wokuphila Nokufa "kanye no" Nkosi Yamanga ", ezama ukulimaza umhlaba wonke, ubamba iqhaza ngo-self-sodomy. Lokhu kugqugquzela ukugonywa kwegayimani kudala "ukuqhuma kwamandla amabi" kanye nemiphumela ekufikeni kwezingelosi ezimbi namademoni. U-Ahriman uye wacatshangwa njengomphathi walabo abadla ngezocansi. Kodwa lokhu kubonakaliswa okubi kobulili obufanayo kusuka kuZoroastrianism akubonwanga kuGathas, incwadi yabo engcwele okumele ibe yizibonakaliso zomprofethi uZoroaster.

UDavid noJonathan ku "La Somme le Roy" (1290 CE)

Kubulawe

Indaba kaDavida noJonathani yacaciswa njengoba i-Association ephakathi kukaDavid noJonathan ihlanganiswe kakhulu eTestamenteni Elidala Lokuqala likaSamuweli, futhi njengengxenye yalokhu kulandisa kukaDavide ukuphakama kagesi. Umbono waseGibhithe otholakala ku-exesgesis uthi ubudlelwane phakathi kokubili buhlobo obuseduze be-platonic. Kodwa-ke, kube nomhlangano wokulinganisa ukuxhumana phakathi kukaDavide noJonathan ocansini noma ngokobulili.

Esinye isosha, uNowa umphongolo wokukhulula abantu kanye nabagxeka abalethe ukukhukhula baba umenzi wewayini. Wabe eselele futhi ephuza iwayini 1 ntambama. Uma uHamu indodana yakhe engena emntwaneni, uthola uyise ubaba, futhi uKhanani, Omunye wamadodana kaHamu uzobulawa ngokuxoshwa. Efa lamaJuda, kusho ukuthi uHam walala noNowa noma wamxosha.

Judeo Christian

Saint Sebastian, isiteshi sokuqala serekhodi se-LGBT.

Ukubhujiswa kweSodoma njengoba kuboniswe nguSebastian Munster Dating uye kwaqondisa abahlaziyi abambalwa ukuthembela labalandeli. Izimpawu ezidumile kunazo zonke ngalolu mbono kuzoba yilokho okushiwo yi-martyrology yabo, kusukela enkulumweni yesiGreki, ichaza ngokuthi "erastai", noma ngisho nabalandeli. Isazi-mlando uJohn Boswell sasikholelwa ukuthi ubuhlobo bakhe bubekwe icala lomshado wokuqala wobuKristu obufanayo, omelela umbono wakhe wokuba yisakhamuzi sengqondo yobuKristu yasendulo ngokuqondene nobungqingili. Isikhundla esiphakeme saleSonto Lama-Orthodox EMpumalanga yiqiniso ukuthi isiko sasemandulo saseMpumalanga se-adelphopoiiathat siphumelele ukukhiqiza "ubuzalwane" esivela esihlokweni sikaNkulunkulu, futhi singahle sihlotshaniswe nabazingcwele bakho be-2 'akukho miphumela yocansi.

USebastian ongcwele angakabi isishiyagalolunye esino-gay esimi isikhathi eside. I-Combo yombuso wakhe onamandla, ongeyena onobudlova umlingiswa wale micibisholo engena emzimbeni wakhe wonke, futhi futhi ukuklanywa kwakhe lapho ehlangana nobudlova obudabukisayo kuye kwaba nomculo othakazelisayo (ubungqingili noma kwenye indawo) iminyaka neminyaka, futhi waqala umkhankaso wokuqala wecala lobulili obufanayo i-19thcentury.

Islamic and Pre-Islamic Arabian

Izinkolelo zabantu Qhubeka Ukwabelwana Ngokufaka amaJinn, imimoya eguquguqukayo eguquguqukayo ephuma "emlilweni ongenawo umlilo" (i-Quran 15: 27) ehambelana nelinye iqoqo lezingelosi ezazalwa ngosuku lwesihlanu lokudala kusukela kumbhalo wamaJuda weQabalistic, futhi U-Bahir ("Ukukhanyisa") okwakhiwa "emlilweni ongenasici." Abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi amakhono abo akwazi ukuthuthukisa ubulili kodwa lokho akuhambisani nendawo yonke yamaSulumane kodwa amandla abo okuhamba futhi ahambe ngokushesha ngokushesha amakhono IJinn yabo. Igama elithi Jinn lisho ukuthi "lifihlekile emehlweni" futhi ngezikhathi ezithile kuthathwa ngokuthi liqondiswe yiShaytaan (isi-Arabhu for "uSathane") (ngubani okungenzeka ukuthi uDeveli ubizwa ngokuthi u-Islam ngoba u-Iblis "yena obangela ukuphelelwa ithemba") , emele amandla omlingo kanye nokuthunjwa - futhi kubonakala njengabaletha ingcebo ngesikhathi uSathane evuma.

Zonke lezi zimfanelo zihlobene namaJinn ngenxa yokuhlubuka kukaShaytaan kuleli lungiselelo lika-Allah ukuvuma amandla ka-Adamu okusebenza njengomkhulu kunamaJinn kanye nokwenqaba kwakhe ukusho ukuthi "wadalwa emlilweni futhi uAdamu wadalwa ngobumba" Ikhono lamaJinn ukuya esibhakabhakeni bese likhuluma kule nkulumo yezingelosi futhi liphinde liphinde liphinde libuyele lokho eliyibuyisela futhi liyibuyisele kubabukeli futhi ama-oracle ajoyine kanye nemilingo (Quran 72: 8-10).

AmaJinn asebenziwa i-Al-Jink kanye noMukhannathunand Trans Gender kanye nama-Wanderers anemisebenzi yezingokomoya nokuzijabulisa. E-Arabhu nase-Oikoumene imiphakathi, Abesilisa nabesifazane, lokhu njengesibonelo isibonelo uMukhannathun beba ngabakhulekeli ezindaweni eziningi ezihlakaza izinkolo zikaNkulunkulu. Lezi zinkolo ze-Al-lat, u-Uza, ukuthi e-Arabia yase-Pre-Islam ayengacabanga ukuthi babe ngabafowabo baka Allah kodwa bebekwe icala njengezithombe zamanga.

Imfundiso yama-Arabia ihlanganisa iziphethu zokuthakazelisa ezishintsha ngokocansi noma emithonjeni, lokhu njengesibonelo nge-Al-Zahra. Kuze kuphuze ukuphuza noma kusuka e-Al-Zahra, izintandokazi zobulili ziyakuthinta. I-folk-lore yazo yonke i-Swat, enyakatho yePakistan ngokuvamile ihlanganisa ukuxhumana ngokocansi okufanayo "kulabo abathandekayo" kungaba nje umfana osemusha noma umuntu osemusha.

Incazelo yokuzibandakanya ngokobulili ishintshiwe Ngamagama athi "gay" awazange asetshenziselwe ukuchaza ubuhlobo bobulili ngaphambi kwekhulu le-20th. '' Ezinye zezindlela zokuhlukanisa eziqashiwe zisebenzisela ukuchaza ubulili. ukuqondiswa kwemikhakha kuye kwashiya ukucacisa igama nganoma iyiphi indlela, okwenza kube nzima ukubuyisela imiphumela yezifundo zocwaningo.Nokho, izincazelo eziningi zihlanganisa izinto ezinjengengxenye yomzwelo (njengokuphathwa kwesidingo socansi lomuntu) noma ingxenye yokuziphatha (yiziphi izinhloso phezu kobulili bomlingani wabo ocansini / isifo sobulili) Abanye bafuna ukunamathela ekuchazeni ngokweqile noma ekuziphatheni komuntu ngamunye. Buka ubungqingili kanye nobulili obuqondene nezidingo ezivame ukukhuluma nabantu abesilisa nabangqingili, abesilisa nabesilisa nabangqingili (LGB).

Isibalo esikhulu sabantu ngabaseNtshonalanga nalolu hlu singaba ngenxa yezimo zengqondo zomphakathi. I-Pew Research Center ye-2003 Global Attitudes Survey ithole ukuthi "abantu base-Afrika naseMpumalanga Ephakathi bayakuphikisa kakhulu ukwamukelwa komphakathi ngobungqingili. Isimo sengqondo ngobungqingili emazweni aseLatin American asineke ngokomthetho, kodwa iMexico neBrazil baye bahlala bengavumelani ngale ndaba.

Umbono wezo zombili izinkolo nabakholwayo ziyahlukahluka Ukuhlinzekela ekucabangeni ukuthi ubulili okusho ukuthi ubulili kanye nobulili kungaba ukubonakaliswa kwakho okuphezulu kwalesi sezulu. Ezinye izinkolo ziyahlukahluka ezibandakanya ukuphishekela ngokocansi okungase kwenziwe ukuze uthole ukuxhashazwa ngokocansi (izikhathi ezithile zenziwa amandla kuphela uma zihlala kahle emshadweni nangenkathi ethile), kanye neminye imisebenzi eyenziwa ngenjabulo yobulili, njengokuziphatha okubi.

Isifinyezo

Ukuziphatha kuye kwahluka kakhulu kule minyaka futhi kuhilela imiphakathi. Izindinganiso zocansi - izidingo zokuziphatha zomphakathi - zizoxhunyaniswa nezidingo zezinkolelo zenkolo, noma ngisho nenye ngayinye lezi. Impendulo kanye nobulili ngokuqinisekile yizinto ezikhona emphakathini nasekusebenzisaneni ngabanye. Ngaphezu kwalokho, "imingcele yezocansi" iphakathi kwalabo bonke abantu abavela emiphakathini yempucuko engavamile emiphakathini eminingi.

Izinkolo eziningi Ziye zabona isidingo Umbuzo wento efanele "yokwenza" ngokomoya ekukhulumisaneni kwabantu. Izinkolo ezihlukahlukene zinamakhodi ahlukene ezinkombazo, ezilawula izenzo noma ukuthunyelwa kwezinto ezifanelekile ezivela emibonweni ethile noma imisebenzi ethile. ukumboza izihloko zendabuko, intsha, ubuqotho njll. Lezi zimakhodi zifuna ukulungisa izimo ezingase zenze ukwanda.

Izinkolo zika-Abrahama

Kusukela okholweni lwaseBahá'í, ubudlelwane bobulili buvunyelwe kuphela uBaha'un, kodwa umdali walolu Hlelo lweBahá'í encwadini yakhe yemithetho, i-Kitáb-i-Aqdas, uvimbela ukulala ngokocansi. Inkolelo yeBahá'í iyavuma ukuthi ukufaneleka kwalesi sifo sobulili, kodwa ukusetshenziswa kwayo okulungile kukhona ekuhlanganiseni inyunyana; I-Baha'is ayikholelwa ekunciphisweni kwesifiso sabo sobulili kodwa ngokulawulwa kwayo kanye nomthethosisekelo.

ubuKristu

Kukhonjisiwe Le ngxenye idilizwe kwenye Enye isihloko ebizwa ngobuKristu nobuhle.

Buka ubufebe, ubuKristu nobuhlobo bobulili, ubungqingili nobuKristu, kanye nabangcwele bamaPhalli

eTestamenteni Elisha

Lesi sigaba Okudingekayo, futhi kuzobe sekude isikhathi eside ukuphequlula izigaba ezisebenzayo. Vele uphinde ufunde le ncazelo ngokuhambisana nemiyalelo evezwe kwi-Manual of Style.

UPaul the Apostle uthe ku-1 Corinthians ukuthi Kuhle kakhulu ukuthi umfokazi ahlale enjalo, kodwa uma kungenakwenzeka ukuba bazivimbele, khona-ke kudingeka badane, "Kwabangashadile nabafelokazi ngithi Kuhle ukuthi bahlale bengashadile njengami. Okubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi umbono kaPaul mayelana nobulili uzobe ungenasisekelo kulowo nalowo othola iziphakamiso ezithile zesipho (okungenzeka ukuthi "u-celibacy").

Isazi seTestamente Esisha NT Wright sithi uPaul Ukunqandwa kwavinjelwa yi-Complete, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi imitholampilo yamaKristu yangaphambili. Ama-Wright amanothi "Uma amaKorinte ayengasho ukuthi, 'Ngenxa yokuthi ngingumKorinte, ngihlale ngidinga uchungechunge lwezintombi ezingabangane engizilele kuzo, okuyingxenye yempucuko yethu,' uPawulu wayezophendula, 'Hhayi namuhla ungumKristu awukho ngempela. '

Abanye baye babonisa ukuthi isiluleko sikaPawulu sobulili sithonywe ngokuqiniseka kwakhe ukuthi isiphetho sezwe sisasondele. Ngaphansi kwalokhu mbono, uPaul, ecabanga ngokuthi iplanethi izothuthuka, ithathe lokhu okukhathazeka kakhulu, njengokuthi ubulili, uma kunakekelwa kumaKristu. Izincwadi zikaPawulu ziveza ubunzima ngezinkinga uma kuqhathaniswa nabalobi bevangeli abadunyiswa kuJesu, njengoba uPawulu ebeka imiphakathi yobuKristu futhi esabela ezindabeni ezavela.

Isazi semfundiso yenkolo u-Lee Gatiss sithi "igama elithi" Balekelani ukuziphatha okubi ngokobulili (porneia) futhi nixoshe uthando lomuntu siqu "(bheka i-1 Thess 4: 1 - 8) kwakuyisigijimi esiqondile kumaKristu ezwe elithandana nobulili."

UbuKristu Bomlando

EbuKristwini, ukubonakaliswa ematheksthini asemthethweni Kuqala ukuhlaziywa kwe-hermeneutic ekutheni kuthathwe incwadi yaleGenesise. Insimu yase-Edeni ibhekwa njengesizinda esivamile sokuthi lawo maKristu aphumelele ukuzama; abalobi baxoxela injabulo yezulu ibe isibusiso sabo bobabili u-Adamu no-Eva ngaphakathi kokukhuluma kwakhe.

Ukuhlola ubuntombi besonto elikhangiwe ekusizeni ukuthi ukuhlukana phakathi komyalelo wakho kaGenesise ukuba "ukhule futhi ulandele" ube nomphumela wayo owaziwayo wenyunyana njengenhlangano yomphakathi, kanye nokuchazwa kwalesi sigqila sobuntombi phakathi kwenyunyana, ukuziphatha ngokobulili nokubunjwa kwezindlu ngokumelene nemibhalo yakho yamaVangeli Matt 19: 11-12, Matt 19: 29. Isizwe se-1 sizama ukuveza ukuthi le mibhalo yayisesikhathini lapho kungekho khona ukulala e-Edeni: ngesikhathi sokufunda okuhlukile, ubulili bekwenzeka kulandela ukuwa komuntu kanye nokuxoshwa kwase-Edeni, ngaleyo ndlela kuqiniseke ukuthi ubulili buyisimo esihle kakhulu kusukela ePharadesi lasendulo kanye nasezulwini. UJohn Chrysostom, uGregory waseNysa, uJustin Martyr, u-Epiphanius waseSalami, no-Irenaeus waseLyons bonke bavusa lo mbono:

UGregory waseNysa, on Virginity, 1 2 "Akakafiki 15.2" Kungani umshado ungabonakali ngaphambi kokukhohliswa? Kungani kwakungekho ukulala epharadesi? Kungani kungenjalo ubuhlungu bokubeletha ngaphambi kokuqalekiswa? Ngoba ngaleso sikhathi lezi zinto zaziyizingqayizivele ".

U-Irenaeus, Agaynst Heresies, Book 3, ch 22: 4 "Kodwa u-Eva wayengalaleli, ngoba akazange alalele lapho engakayiyintombi. Futhi njengoba naye, enesilisa, uAdamu (ngoba eParadesi bobabili behamba behamba ze, futhi babengenamahloni, njengoba nje, benziwa isikhathi esifushane ngaphambilini, babengenakuqonda ukuzala kwezingane: ngoba kwakudingeka ukuthi baqale ukudala, bese ukuphindaphindwa kusukela ngaleso sikhathi kuya phambili), njengoba engalaleli, yenziwa imbangela yokufa, kokubili kuye nakubo bonke abantu ... "

U-Epiphanius waseSalami, iPanarion 78.17-19 "Futhi njengalapha ePharadesi uEva, namanje intombi, wawela esonweni sokungalaleli, futhi futhi ngeNdvodzakati kwafika ukulalela komusa".

U-Justin Martyr, Ukuxoxisana noTripho ch Onekhulu "KuEva, owayeyintombi futhi engangcolile, esekhulelwe izwi lenyoka, waletha ukungalaleli nokufa. Kodwa uMariya uMariya wathola ukholo nenjabulo, lapho ingelosi uGabriyeli yamemezela izindaba ezinhle kuye ... "

UProf. John Noonan ubonisa ukuthi "uma umuntu ebuza ... lapho uBaba abangamaKristu bethola khona imibono yabo emshadweni - imibono engenazo ezisekelwe eBhayibhelini - impendulo kumele ibe, ikakhulukazi kwabaseStoiki". Usebenzisa imibhalo evela ku-Musonius Rufus, uSeneca Omncane, kanye no-Ocellus Lucanus, ukulandela kuzosebenza ngoClement wase-Alexandria, u-Origen noJerome emisebenzini yalawo maphayona asheshayo, ikakhulukazi njengoba ehlobanisa nokusetshenziswa okunamandla komsebenzi wabo wenyama, ku-version ye-Stoic kufanele ihliswe, ingabi nesibindi, futhi iqinisekiswe yinhloso yayo yokudala.

U-Augustine waseHippo wayedinga umbuzo I-glitches yeManichaeism. Ngisho noManichees, ngokusho kuka-Augustine, "baphikisana nomshado, ngoba baphikisana nokuzala okuyinjongo yomshado". "Indlela yokwelapha eyenziwa yiManichees owaziwa ngu-Augustine ukusetshenziswa kwenkathi oyinyumba njengoba kunqunywe nge-Greek medicine ", ukuthi u-Augustine uyalahla (lokhu kuqhathaniswa nalokhu okwakuvumela okwesikhashana ukusetshenziswa kwamaKatolika okuHlelwa koMndeni).

Ukuphila komzimba kwamakholi njengemiphakathi ekhulile Iqashwe yi-2 ngaphansi kwezingcweti zemfundiso yenkolo, uJohn Cassian kanye noKesarius of Arles, owakhuluma "ngezinto ezimbi" zokuphila kwabo. "Ukukhathazeka kwabo kwakungekho ngesenzo sokushaya indlwabu, kodwa nabanikazi wathembisa ubumsulwa. Isithembiso sezindela esakhiwe i-orgasm isenzo; isenzo esicatshangelwe ukuthi siyingozi ... kuqinisweni ... ngaphambi kweCassian, udumo alukholwanga umsebenzi wezocansi kuwo wonke umuntu. "

AmaKatolika

Buka futhi: Imfundiso yeMfundiso Yomzimba Wakho Nemibono Yenkolo. ukushaya indlwabu

Ekuqaleni kwekhulu leminyaka, ngisho neSonto LamaKatolika kakhulu lihlonishwa ngokusemthethweni phakathi komuntu obhapathiziwe nomuntu ukuba abe isakramente - isibonakaliso sangaphandle esibonisa isipho sikaNkulunkulu ngempela. UMkhandlu waseFlorence e-1438 wanikeza inhlonipho, emva kwezitatimende zeSonto ezivela ku-1208, futhi wamemezela inyunyana ukuthi yaba yingxenye yomshado kaKristu eSontweni. Kodwa amaPuritani, ngenkathi ehlola ngokubaluleke kakhulu inhlangano, ebona inyunyana "yombutho", ngokumelene nenqubo evamile "yenkolo", okwamanje iba "ngaphansi kwegunya lezinkantolo zomphakathi". Lokhu kungenxa nje yokuthi abatholakali ngaphambili ukuze bathole abefundisi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, le nhlangano ibike ukuthi iyasebenza "njengenkululeko yokuzikhandla" ngaphezu kwezinye izinhloso ezingokomoya.

Isikole sokuqala sikaPapa uJohn Paul II sasizungezile imfundiso yenkolo Emzimbeni wakho, owethulwa ngesiqu esifanayo. Phakathi nesikhathi seminyaka ye-5 wayesekwazi ukubona ubulili obungaqiniseki futhi obuhle kodwa bekungokwensindiso, hhayi ukulahlwa. Walalela ukuthi abantu bazenziwe noNkulunkulu onothando ukuze bathole inhloso: ukuba babe amadoda okudumisa abakhetha ukuthanda ukuzinikela ngokwawo. Ubulili phakathi komkami nomyeni nje empeleni kuyisibonakaliso kubo bonke. [ukuhlola?]

Uthi ayikho isithombe esingeziwe esingenasici salokhu kubumbana nokuhlangana kukaNkulunkulu ngothando oluhle uma kuqhathaniswa nomsebenzi womzimba womshado womshado, lapho bezinikela khona ngendlela yonke - kuphela kumuntu, futhi kuze kube sekupheleni kwalokhu isikhathi sokuphila, futhi ngendlela engavamile kakhulu yokuzibandakanya ekusungulweni kwabantu abasha. Ngalolu mbono, uyazi ukuziphatha okubi kobulili. Ihlukumeza amagama omzimba wabo, isilulumagama sokuthandana okuvamile ngokusebenzisa uhlelo lwakho ukuze uthole iziphetho zokuziphendulela, ukuphatha kahle amadoda njengento nezinto, ngokuphambene nokubhekana namadoda ase-Igbo ndawonye nokujabulela nokuhlonipha ukuthi imimoya ifaneleka. UJohn Paul II ukhathazeka ukuthi kwakukhona ubuhle othandweni ngemva kokuthola konke ukuzibophezela kokuzibophezela okwenyuka nokuzinikela. Ngami ngokwami, lolu thando lungase luhlobo nje lokukhulekela.

AmaRoma Katolika acabanga ukuthi ukushaya indlwabu kungaba yisono.

AmaProthestani

Wonke amaProthestani aphikisana nokuthi noma yikuphi ukulala ngaphandle kobulili Kubumbano, isibonelo okwenzeka phakathi kwabalingani bobulili obufanayo noma abathintekayo, kungenzeka ukuthi isono sobufebe. Lokhu ukuphika ubulili kuhlanganisa namakhosikazi avulekile kakhulu.

Ngokungafani namaKatolika amaningi, amaProthestani awawamukeli ukushaya indlwabu ngenxa yalokhu kwehluleka komyalo weBhayibheli ophikisana nalesi senzo. Imvume yamaProthestani e-Conservative and Main-stream, noma ngabe kunezinkinga, njengokubonakala kubantu noma ukufisa noma ukuxhomeka esenzweni noma ukwenza ukuthi kungabangeli ukusetshenziswa kwe-porn, ukushaya indlwabu akuyona nje isono. Akufanele kwenziwe ngomoya wokungahloniphi uNkulunkulu.

ISonto LamaVangeli eJalimane naseNetherlands naseSwitzerland libona ukuphula umthetho. Emasontweni anjalo angamaLuthela, e-United kanye namaReformed abafundisi abavunyelwe enkonzweni nasemibhangqwaneni yobungqingili abavunyelwe ngaphakathi kwamasonto abo.

U-Eva Brunner angaba ngempela empeleni.

Ngisho neMetropolitan Community Church, ebizwa nangokuthi i-Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches, ifaka phakathi nokuxhumana okuqondene nabantu abathandana nabangqingili, abesilisa abesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa kanye nemindeni.

Ukusuka esontweni lase-Anglican ukungavumelani kuphakathi kwesibusiso sobungqingili kanye nokukhuthazela okuqhubekayo kwemibhangqwana. Le mpikiswano iningi mayelana nengxenye yothando phakathi kwabantu abangu-2 bobulili obufanayo ngokubambisana ngoba konke okuphathelene nesici se-romance romance. Emasontweni athile, amasonto ase-Anglican (Episcopal) aseCanada nase-USA avumela abapristi abangqingili bobulili obufanayo embusweni futhi bamema ama-agendas afanayo, okuye kwaheha ukugxeka okuvela ezifundeni ezihlukahlukene zeMigodi yase-Anglican. Amasonto asezindaweni zase-Afrika ayenokuzimela ngokuzenzekelayo ekubhekaneni nobungqingili. Abapristi ngokuvamile emasontweni amaningi ase-Anglican bekufanele babe yizinkinga uma befuna ukuqhubeka nomsebenzi wabo.

I-Mormonism

Ngisho nesonto le-LDS Awuvumeli noma yisiphi isisho ukuthola abesilisa nabesifazane besilisa nabesilisa nabesifazane.

Phezu kwamagatsha kaMormonism i-Basic Principle Denomination ukuthi iSonto LDS liyala imibono mayelana nobuqotho ngaphakathi koMthetho wobucayi obugcina ukuthi ubulili bomshado, ngaphambi nangaphezulu, kanye nezenzo zobulili zibe izono. Kusukela ku-1800s kunikwe amandla okushada futhi ibe nezingane kanye namantombazane ukuba ashade ngesikhathi esifanayo kumfana.

Emiphakathini yabaholi beSonto LDS amaLungu afundelwe akufanele ahlaziye njengengxenye yokulalela emthethweni we-LDS wobumsulwa. Isonto le-LDS libheke ukuthi umsebenzi othile wezocansi ungaba ngempela empeleni isono kanye nobulili ngaphandle komshado kuyisinengiso. UNkulunkulu ucatshangwa ukuthi usebunyeni noMoya oMama weZulwini kanye namaMormon akholelwa ngokuqinisekile ukuthi inyunyana yilokho uNkulunkulu akufisa izingane zakhe. Abaholi bebandla le-LDS abalinganiselwe basebenzise ukukhombisa ukukhangisa kubantu ngokuqondile ngokuqondile ukuthi ubulili obufanayo bube yisono noma ingozi engakwazi ukuguqulwa noma ukulungiswa, kodwa namuhla kunesimo esiphakeme mayelana ne-etiology yobungqingili, futhi kufundisa ukwelashwa okuzinikezelwe Ukushintsha ukuziphatha ngokocansi kufana nokubili kokungathembeki. Abantu abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabesifazane, basuke benqatshelwe konke okukhethwa ukuzama ukulungisa ukuziphatha kwabo ngokocansi, ngisho nokufaka umlinganiso ohlukile olwahlukene wobulili obuhlukile, noma ngisho nokuphila ngesitayela sokuphila ngaphandle kokubonakaliswa ngokocansi (njengokushaya indlwabu) .

Isonto LDS lifundisa ukuthi umsebenzi wesimiso wabesifazane uzoba Ukukhulisa izingane. Njengoba besifazane abahlala kuyo, Amantombazane aphikisana nomsebenzi, ayebhekwa njengangcolile futhi enzima. Ngaphambi kwe-1890 abaholi bamaMormon bafundisa ukuthi isithembu kwakuyindlela elula yokusindiswa kanye nezintombi eziningana eziningi ku-1900s, kanye nabesifazane abambalwa abaqhuba.

Imfundiso yamaMormon ifundisa ukuthi inyunyana kufanele isetshenziswe kuMuntu kanye nowesifazane. Ukholo lweMormon lwenqabela konke ukuziphatha, uma kungaba okungaphezulu komshado noma kwangaphakathi komshado. Emuva kumaRoma 1: 24-32, uPawulu washumayela kumaRoma ukuthi ukuziphatha kwakuyisono. Emuva kuLevitikusi 20: 13, uMose wahlanganisa ukuthi yikuphi ukuziphatha nemisebenzi eyayiphikisana nentando kaNkulunkulu. Kusukela ku-1830s, '' Umsunguli we-LDS uJoseph Smith wenza umtholampilo wakhe. Isonto ngesihloko senkululeko lalondoloza umtholampilo. Umtholampilo wesonto usemiswe okwesikhashana. Ngenxa yokuthi isithembu sesiphetho, amaMormon aye bakholelwa ekuhlanganiseni phakathi kwabantu abahlukene be-2, futhi nalabo bantu abahlukene be-2 bayiziqhamuka futhi bayizimpendulo ngempela. Ngisho neqembu le-LDS lisho ukuthi yikuphi okwamanje abathandana nabangqingili njengamadodana nabafowabo beNkosi yabo, noma kunjalo kufanele baziphathe ngokuthambekela kwabo ngempela ukuthi bangene endaweni yalesi sonto.

I-Unity Church

Ngisho noma iSonto Lobumbano esiteshini esisekelweni salo linikezela imithandazo Ukubuyiswa kobulili obufanayo, isonto liye lahlela njalo izikhonzi eziqhathaniswa nobungqingili, uqala no-Ernest C. Wilson, owabekwa njengomsebenzi nguMdali uCharles Fillmore, wathunyelwa esontweni esithile eHollywood, eCalifornia ngokuziqonda kahle indlela ayezijwayele ngayo.

Islam

AmaSulumane akhuthaza umshado ngomkhuba wokuziphatha, ucatshangwa yiwo futhi ngoba uhlobo olusungula ukubambisana kwabantu ngabanye. Amavesi e-Quranic akwazi ukuthola umthetho kumadoda amaSulumane ukushada amantombazane ezinkolweni eziningana zika-Abrahama (okusho amaJuda namaKristu), uma nje abesifazane ababili beqotho (abambisana) ngamasiko abo enkolo. Izazi zanamuhla nazo zashilo lesi sahlulelo. Intombazane yamaSulumane, ehlangothini lwe-flip, evunyelwe ukushada nomuntu ongumSulumane njengomphumela wokushada umuntu uzobonisa ukuthi izingane zingakhula njengamaSulumane. Ukuhlelwa kwezinyunyana ezibandakanya intombazane yamaSulumane kanye nomuntu kubhekwa kungabi nalutho futhi kungavunyelwe, futhi ngokusemthethweni into. Esinye isizathu sizoba ukuqinisekisa ukuthi amalungelo omama aqondwa emhlanganweni wezinyunyana.

Izinhlobo eziningi zokuxhumana ngokocansi emnyunyweni zonke zivunyelwe. Ubulili bubhekwa njengomthwalo wemfanelo, empeleni umsebenzi, kanye nokuthokozisa. Okungenani ubuncane be-hadith eyodwa bathi ukuzitholela indoda ukuba uhlale ocansini kungaba empeleni nje isenzo esiphundu esihlonishwa noNkulunkulu. I-hadith elandelayo ichaza ukuthi ngaphambi kokuba owesifazane egcwaliseke, umuntu akufanele asuke e-mattress, okushiwo izinto zezwe.

Ukuxhumana okungavunyelwe Kuhlangene noxhumana Ngesikhathi esesesikhathini. Kulesi simo, okunye ukuxhumana kocansi (njengokumanga kanye nokunye okungahambisani nezinto ezifana ne-Con-Tact yesisu) kunikwe amandla ngokuqondile. Ubuhlobo besikhathi esifushane (Mut'a, inyunyana eyabelwe isikhathi esinqunyelwe isikhathi) ayinqatshelwe yizikhungo eziningi zemfundo zaseSunni, kodwa zinikezwa izikhungo zemfundo zaseShia. Ukungqubuzana kuye kwaba ngokoqobo.

Ukuphinga kuyakujezisa. Ubulili ngaphambi komshado bukholelwa ukuthi sinesono hhayi nje. Imithetho ngayinye ye-shari'a nemithetho eqondisa ukuziphatha ixhumane nabesilisa nabesifazane ngokufanayo.

Uzothola ukubukwa okuphikisayo. Lapho ezinye izazi zingekho emthethweni futhi zikholelwa ukuthi ifilosofi yamaSulumane abanye (ngokwesibonelo njengabaNtu befilosofi kaHanbali) bacabange ukuthi Abantu abanobuhlungu bokukhathazeka ngokuziphatha ngobufebe noma ukwesaba Amaqembu awutholanga lutho olungafanelekile futhi akahlawulwanga uma (futhi kuphela lapho) bebelokhu behluleka ukushada. Ngokuhambisana nama-hadiths amenywa ngokushesha Uma indlela yokuvimbela ukulingana kanye nokubukwa kwemimoya noma ubufebe Izingxoxo nobulili ngaphandle kwenyunyana zidikibala.

baphuma ebuJudeni

Ekubukeni kobuJuda obuvamile, ubulili nokukhiqizwa kungaba izenzo ezingcwele kunazo zonke ongayenza, isenzo esingamlingisa ngaso uNkulunkulu, "uMdali", futhi futhi ukuze ugcine ubungcwele bayo uzothola imingcele eminingi kanye namathiphu. Ayikho imithethonqubo, futhi ingadingeka empeleni. Iphazamisa ubudlelwane bobulili ngaphandle komshado, igcina ukuxhuma ekuxhumaneni ngaphakathi komunye umhlangano okubandakanya ukugcinwa kwabo bonke abantu, ukuvinjelwa kokuxhumana ukuze uthole i-span tzniut, futhi kuhilela isikhathi, izidingo zokuziphatha kanye isembatho. AmaJuda ajwayelekile okubuka abantu abasebenzisa ubulili nabafana abadala, izenzo zokuphinga, ukuchitha inzalo, kanye nokukhanukela kwezono. UbuJuda buvumela isahlukaniso, ngisho kanye nawo wonke amaJuda angama-Orthodox kanye nobuJuda be-Conservative bafuna inkonzo yokuhlukanisa imivimbo engokomoya ukuze bahlukanise ziqaphele. Emhlabeni jikelele uhamba ebuJudeni bakholelwa ukuthi inkululeko ayinayo inqaba yamacala amaJuda ayebophe kodwa aphefumule futhi aphelelwe umthwalo, ngaleyo ndlela ahlale ebuka imibono ekugcineni ukusebenzisa impucuko yasebukhosini yasentshonalanga.

Iningi lobuJuda obuvamile alithathi Nokho abantu abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi bangamaJuda futhi baphuthumayo. Omunye unobhala olawulayo ozoyithatha ngempela uzoba nguSharon Kleinbaum oye waba yinkambiso yokuvuselela ubuJuda obubheka umthetho weBhayibheli wamaJuda kunokuba uthathwe njengesibopho, kepha kungaphathwa njengokuba yindlalifa yamasiko okufanele igcinwe ngaphandle uma kunezizathu eziphambene nazo. Ungu-rabbi ophakeme eBandleni iBeit Simchat Torah eNew York esebenza ngabanye kunoma iyiphi i-American Jewish religion; U-R Kleinbaum uthi i-polyamory ingaba yiyona nje into ekhethileyo engeke ibenze indlela yokuphila eyaziwa ngamaJuda. Amanye amaJuda angama-polyamorous ngaphezu kwalokho aveza izinzalamizi zeBhayibheli nabafazi abaningi nezancinza ukuthi ubudlelwane be-polyamorous bungaba ngcwele ebuJudeni. Kwakukhona uhlu lwe-imeyili olwalugcizelele kumaJuda ahloniphekile, okuthiwa u-AhavaRaba, cishe okulinganayo "othandweni olukhulu" oluvela esiHeberu. (Ukukhomba kwayo kubonisa ukuthi umthandazo we-Ahava rabbah ubonga abaningi ngokuthi "uthando olukhulu" lukaNkulunkulu.)

I-Conservative

UbuJuda be-Conservative, e-Line kanye nombono walo uHalakha (umthetho wamaJuda) ungaba yincwadi ebophezelayo yokuphila kwansuku zonke yamaJuda kodwa ekwazi ukuguqulwa ngezikhathi ezithile kusukela kuRabbinate, uye wakhulisa izinto eziningi ezitholwa yiJuddo lobu-Orthodox. Ngokuqondile, ngoDisemba 2006, iKomiti YezobuJuda Yama-Conservative yamaLungelo namaZwe angamaJuda yamukela imibono ephikisana nayo. Yamukela lo mqondo ukuvimbela ukuvinjelwa kwangaphambili ekuziphatheni ngokobulili kubantu abesilisa nabesilisa ngokobulili, okwakushiwo yilokho okuvunyelwe yiBhayibheli kuphela, ukumemezela ukuvinjelwa okuhlukile (isb. Amadoda abesilisa abesilisa ocansini ngokobulili noma ubungqingili) kanye nokuphakamisa iningi lazo izithiyo zobunobhi zibikezela ekuchazeni kwalo mqondo weTalmud weKeodod HaBriyot ("isithunzi somuntu"). Kwavumela isibusiso sabaqashi nabesilisa nabangqingili futhi bebeka obala obala ongqingili nabangqingili abavuma ukuthi bangabambi iqhaza kwezocansi ngenkathi benciphisa ukwakha uhlobo lobuhlobo bobulili. Umqondo wendabuko mayelana nezenzo zobungqingili .Iqhinga livumela orabi bomuntu, amabandla, kanye namakholeji ukubeka inqubomgomo ethile. Lokhu kubonisa ukuthi ukuguqulwa kwengubo yokuvimbela imitholampilo yama-gay. Ivumela ukungafani kwezombono mayelana nezinkinga ezibuKristwini be-Conservative, ngakho-ke akukho indlela eyodwa yama-Conservative yamaJuda wezindaba zesaveli. UbuJuda bokwamukelayo okwamanje buhlukanisa ukuhlukaniswa phakathi kwamazwi avamile nokukhululekile ngezihloko zenkambiso yamanje yaseMelika.

UbuJuda bobuqili buyekezela ezincwadini zayo amanani ezinqatshelwe kanye nezidingo, isibonelo isidingo abesifazane abagubha ukuvinjelwa okuphelele kokuziphatha kanye nemithetho yasendlini. Umndeni omangalisayo umthetho udinga amantombazane ukuba aqonde kangcono njenge-niddah noma ngisho ne-Tuma ngaphakathi kwesikhathi sokuya esikhathini. Njengokwenza i-tuma, owesifazane uzoba ngempela ukulinda amasonto ayisikhombisa ngenxa yesikhathi sokuya esikhathini sokuqeda emva kwezinsuku eziyisikhombisa "ezihlanzekile" ukuze angene kwi-mikveh futhi aqale ukuxhumana ngokobulili. Ngaleso sikhathi, kuvunyelwe ukuba uthole noma yikuphi ukuxhumana nabo bonke abantu abangafuni ukuthintana nabo kanye nokuthi akudingeki kuthintwe. Ngomuso ntambama ngesikhathi iKomidi leMithetho yamaLungelo namaJuda lishicilela ubulili obubhekene nobungqingili, lanyathelisa izinkulumo ezingenakubalwa mayelana nesihloko se-niddah okubandakanya ukuphendula okwenziwe ukuphakamisa imikhawulo ethile evamile kumyeni womkakho u-Con-Tact phakathi nesikhathi sonke se-niddah ngenkathi eqinisa ukuvinjelwa kobudlelwane bobulili. Ukuphendula ngobungqingili basebenzisa inhlangano ye-Conservative indlela eya ku-niddah ukuze ivumelane nokuvinjelwa kweBhayibheli ekuziphatheni komama kanye nokukhulisa imingcele Lokhu kuthiwa yi-Rabbinic uhlamvu. Ngisho nokuphendula kwakusho ukuthi kuzoba ukufanisa okuqondakalayo okubandakanya isu lapho umuntu ekhishwa khona Laba bahloniphekile ukugcina imisebenzi ethile kanye neqhinga laso lokususa niddah: kanjani

Silindele abafundi ukuba babuke lokhu 'izimpendulo I-Responsum esilindele abafundi ukuba babone ukuthi izigwegwe ze-CJLS. Ngaphezu kwalokho, silindele ukuthi amakomidi esabelo, abaqondisi, ekolishi kanye nabanye abafundi bekolishi bangahlonipha ubuqili nesithunzi sabangqingili nabafundi be-transgender ngenkathi ngendlela efanayo behlonipha ubuqili nesithunzi sabafundi be-postsecondary.

Impendulo eyabelwe Abantu ukuba bangasebenzi njenge "abaphethe kabi" nabo bazilungiselele ukuthola "umshado wendabuko" noma kunini lapho kungenzeka khona, mhlawumbe kungenzeka mhlawumbe ungakhulumi ngokuzithandela noma uvuselele noma yikuphi ukuqiniswa kombuso kumkhuba wangaphandle ongakwenu womshado.

Ngaphambi kokuncintisana ngocansi, lokhu kuphendulwa Kwakuhlehlisiwe kakhulu emibuthanweni esemthethweni. Ngokomzekelo, noma nini lapho i-Jewish Theological Seminary yaseMelika isikisela Ukusebenzisa uhlelo lomshuwalense kusuka ekuhlaliseni ngokubambisana ngokubambisana kwabafundi kubangele ukukhishwa kwecebo labo.

UbuJuda bobuqotho buyavimbela ngokusemthethweni inyunyana Futhi izinqubo zalo manje zikhomba ukuthi orabi odlala inhlangano yesikholwa sokholo uzoxoshwa yilokho. Ivumela ukufakwa kwezigxobo ezihambisanayo njengesibonelo sokuvimbela ukwamukela abantu nokuthola izitatimende zokufika ezikhulwini zesinagoge ezinganeni zamama. Inhlangano ye-Inter faith isakazeke kabanzi ohlwini lwababantu be-Conservative, futhi futhi ukunyakaza kwama-Conservative kuye kwakha uhlelo lokubambisana nemibhangqwana ngokuzethemba kwezingane zabo ebuJudeni.

UbuJuda be-Conservative, okwakumelwe bathole okuningi kwalokhu kwe-20thcentury Inkolo enkulu yamaJuda evela e-United States yawa ngobundlululo ekubambeni kwesinagoge e-United States ukuthi lezi zinshumi nesishiyagalolunye zamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye nesishiyagalolunye, ngamaphesenti angu-51 wesibalo samasinagoge ku-1990 mayelana ne-33.1percent ku-2001, ne- iningi lokulahlekelwa ukuvakashela ebuJudeni bama-Orthodox kanye neningi elisele ekuguqulweni. Ukukhwabanisa emkhathini wamanje waseMelika wokukhulumisana phakathi kokukhululeka kanye nombono wendabuko mayelana nokuziphatha ngokocansi kanye nezihloko ezengeziwe, ngaphezu kokuhlukana phakathi kokushiwo okusemthethweni kanye nendawo yonke yemitholampilo yezempilo yomdabu kanye nemikhosi yenkululeko, kungenzeka ukuthi iholele ekunciphiseni .

I-Orthodox

Kukhona imali eningi kulo mkhosi wokuzihlonipha okukhethekile (tzniut), njengoba kuchazwe ubuJuda bama-Orthodox, njengoba buvela emithonjeni ehambisana ne-halakha. Ukugcinwa kwaleyo mithetho kuguqukela ekuphoqelekeni ukujikeleza njalo ububanzi be-Orthodox nokugubha.

UbuJuda bobu-Orthodox buyaqhubeka nokuvimbela inhlanganisela yama-Inter-faith nobuhlobo. UbuJuda bama-Orthodox, ngaphandle kwamahlelo amaJuda, bugcina ukukhubazeka okunomqondo ophansi wokuhlukana, ngisho nokuvimbela iBhayibheli ukuthi uKohen (umpristi ka-Aroni ongumpristi) azinikeze umshado noma mhlawumbe nenkosikazi ethintekile ekuziphatheni okubi ngokobulili. Umlandu we-Orthodox wokuhlukanisa unesibopho sokuqondiswa.

Ukuguqulwa, ukulungiswa kabusha kanye ne-Humanistic

Ukuguqulwa kobuJuda, ubuJuda bobuJuda, kanye nobuJuda bobuNkulu bokuQala kabusha abavamile ukugubha noma ukufuna izimiso zokungcwaba zendabuko futhi babe nabalingani abasamukelekayo kanye nezinyunyana ezixhaswe kanye nemikhosi yokuzinikela.

Ukuguqulwa kanye nokulungiswa kabusha UbuJuda bubukeka bunzima kakhulu. Rabi emiphakathini, futhi inyunyana ingakwenza wena. UbuJuda bobuJuda buvumela inhlangano. Ukuguqulwa kwezinguquko, ukulungiswa kabusha, kanye nobuJuda bobuHulumeni ngaphezu kwalokho ngokuvamile akuthathi isevisi yokuhlukanisa ngokumelene nommeli wehlukaniso.

Kucatshangelwa ukuthi isimo sengqondo sokubekezela sokuthi ukuguqulwa kabusha, ukulungiswa kabusha, kanye nobuJuda bobuHulumeni ekuqondiseni izinhlobonhlobo ezinobuningi kanye nenyunyana yezobukholwa kungenzeka ukuthi sekuholele ekukhuleni kokusakazeka kwabo kuwo wonke amaphesenti angu-90, cishe ngamaphesenti angu-33 wabanikazi bendawo abaxhunywe kumaphesenti angu-38 , okwenza ukuba ubuJuda buyi-Conservative njengenkampani enkulu yamaJuda e-United States.

Buddhism

Inqubo ehlonishwa kakhulu yeBuddhist kuyoba yiMigomo emihlanu kanye neNyathelo Eyesishiyagalombili Eyesishiyagalombili, okusho ukuthi lokhu kudinga ukuxhunyaniswa nenjabulo yobulili enqwenelayo. Yonke le mithetho ikhetha ukuzibophezela kokuzithandela, mhlawumbe mhlawumbe hhayi imfundo yasezulwini noma igunya.

Kule miyalelo emihlanu, okukhulu kunayo yonke kuzobe kunwetshwa kusukela ebulili Kwabanye abantu bomlingani, umuntu oneminyaka engaphansi kweminyaka (okungukuthi, labo abavikelwe ngabazali babo noma ababheki), futhi abathweswe izifungo zenkohliso engokwenkolo. Ukugwema yonke imisebenzi yezocansi kanye noBuddha kuthiwa ucele abalandeli bakhe ukuba bagweme ukungathembeki "njengokungathi kwakuwumgodi wokushisa."

UbuHindu

  • I-Neopaganism

Yonke imisebenzi yenjabulo nothando kuyoba yikho [ukuthi amasiko 'kaDevelikazi]', enza ukufaneleka kubo bonke noma yiziphi izinhlobo zemisebenzi yobulili kubachwepheshe beWiccan.

Kusukela ezinhlobonhlobo zeWicca, i-"Rite Great" ingumkhuba wobulili obukhulu kakhulu Jabulela ama-gamos ama-hieros, eyenziwe ngu-Akhris Celebrate the Wiccan uNkulunkulu noNkulunkulukazikazi. I-Rite Great iyenziwa ngokomfanekiso Ngokusebenzisa i-Chalice njengamatshwayo wesifazane kanye ne-penis yabo. Ifomu lomkhuba lifinyelelwa ngabalandeli abadala futhi ngokuzenzekelayo. I-Rite Great ayibhekwa njengethemba lokuzocansi.

  • USathane

I-LaVeyan uSathane iyinxenye yama-Abrahamic mores, ecatshangelwa ukuthi iyancika ngokuqinile nokunye okunjalo. AmaSathane awona wonke ama-pluralist, adinga abantu abathandana nabo, abesilisa abashadile, abesilisa abashadile, abakwa-BDSM, polyamorists, amadoda abesilisa nabesifazane abesilisa nabesifazane, kanye nama-asexual. Ukuziphatha ngokocansi kubhekwa njengokulandela. Imithetho eyishumi nesishiyagalombili kaSathane yomhlaba ivele ihlinzekele iziqondiso ezimbili mayelana nobulili: "Ungenzi ucansi ngaphandle kokuthi unikezwe isignali yokulinganisa" futhi "Ungalimazi izingane ezincane," nakuba ukugcina kuzoba ngokubanzi futhi kuhlanganise nokusetshenziswa kabi kabi ngokomzimba nangokwengeziwe. Sekulokhu kube yingxenye ephikisanayo ye-CoS plan ngoba iqala ngo-1966, njengoba uPeter H. Gillmore ebhala encwadini ekhuthaza ukulingana ngokobulili obufanayo: "Ekugcineni, njengoba abantu abathile bezama ukuphakamisa ukuthi isimo sethu sengqondo ngokuziphatha ngokobulili" kukhona into " isimiso esisekelwe "sokuziphendulela kwabathintekayo," kumelwe sitshele esinye isisekelo esiyinhloko: ISonto lefilosofi likaSathane livimbela ngokuphelele izingane ngokobulili kanye nezilwane ezingezona abantu. "

Kulesi Sihloko wathi: "ISonto likaSathane liyisonto lokuqala lokulala ngokobulili obufanayo. Uma nje uthando selukhona futhi abalingani befisa ukwenza ubuhlobo, sisekela isifiso sabo sokubambisana ngokomthetho, namalungelo amalungelo avela kuleyo nyunyana. "

  • I-Unitarian Universalism

Inani lamabandla ase-UU liye lahlela ukuqhutshwa kokuhlelwa kwezinhlangano, izinhlelo zeProcedural nezengqondo ukuze ziphenduke zibe "iBandla Lokungamukela": iqembu elifaka phakathi lilethe izinto ezikhethekile zokwamukela ukwamukela nokubandakanya abantu abesilisa nabesifazane, abesilisa nabesilisa nabangqingili, LGBT) Amalungu e-UU afeza imishado efanayo yobulili njengamanje njengamanye amazwe asemthethweni (futhi ngezikhathi ezithile ngisho mhlawumbe uma kungenjalo, kungenjalo, njengokubonakaliswa komphakathi). Unitarian Universalists bahamba phambili emsebenzini wabo ukwakha izinyunyana ezifanayo zobulili okusemthethweni ngaphakathi kwezwe kanye nasezizweni zabo, ngaphezu kwesigaba sezemfundo. Abesifazane abesilisa nabesifazane abadala, kanye nabesifazane bama-lesbian bajwayele ukuba yizikhonzi, kanye nabasebenzi abaningi besonto lobulili bobulili obufanayo, bahlale bashade ngokomthetho ngabashadile babo. Emuva ngo-May 2004, I-Arlington Street Church ibe yiwebhusayithi yale nhlangano yokuqala lapho ehlala e-United States. Isikhundla sikahulumeni salolu UUA ngempela siyothola ukugunyazwa kwalo ngobulili obufanayo i-nion - "Ukuma eceleni koLuthando."

U-Aleister Crowley kudoti lika-Aztec, i-1912.

Imilingo yobulili impela inkulumo yezinhlobo ezithintekayo zomsebenzi ezitholakala emisebenzini yezinkolelo, ezithokozisayo, noma ezenkolo nezombono ezibonakalayo eNtshonalanga ye-Western esotericism ehlukahlukene yamasiko asetshenziswa emasikweni aseNtshonalanga, noma ehlobene nalokhu kukhethwa kwalokhu kuqondakalisa okungavamile kwalesi simo semvelo saseNtshonalanga. . . Umkhuba we-1 wezinsizwa zobulili kuzobe okwamanje unamandla okuvuthwa komzimba noma ukugqugquzela ngokocansi kanye nokuboniswa komphumela okuthandekayo. Ukucabanga ngemilingo yezocansi kungaba umqondo wakho wokuthi ubulili ngempela empeleni nje amandla angase aqhutshwe ukuze adlule okwenziwe. Izimfundiso ezidumile zobuciko bobulili obuvela eNtshonalanga yonke zitholakala kumPaschal waseMelika uBeverly Randolph, ngaphansi kwe-Mysteries of Eulis. Engxenyeni yokugcina yalesi sikhundla sekhulu leminyaka Ida Craddock ephrintiwe imisebenzi yokuphatha intsha, amaZulu amaningi Bridegrooms kanye ne-Psychic Wedlock. U-Aleister Crowley wabuye wahlola i-Heavenly Bridegrooms emakhasini edayari I-Equinox, ethi nakanjani:

Omunye phakathi kwamarekhodi abo ayedalwa ngabantu, Futhi kufanele athole umlobi. Umphathi wale MS. uqinisekisa ukuthi wayekade engumlingani wengelosi. Le mfundiso ichazwa esikhathini esikuyo. Ukuziqhenya kwakhe kunkulu kangaka.

Le ncwadi iqukethe izinto eziyigugu zezemidlalo. Awekho ilabhulali yeMagick ephelele ngekho.

U-Aleister Crowley wakhathazeka ngo-Theodor Reuss kanye no-Ordo Templi Orientis emva kwencwadi ethi The Book of Lies phakathi kwe-1913 no-1912. Ngokusho kwama-akhawunti kaCrowley, uRususs waya kuye wammangalela ngokuthi wayevezwa inqubo yemilingo ye-OTO yangaphakathi kakhulu (engokwenyama) engaphakathi kwezinye zalezi zahluko ezingaqondakali kanye nencwadi. Njengoba kwacaca ngoReuss okuyinto uCrowley ayeyiqedile engahlosile, waphayona uCrowley waya ku-IX ° (ezingeni lesishiyagalolunye) we-OTO yombili futhi wamenza "iNkosi EnguMkhulu Omkhulu we-Ireland, Iona nabo bonke abaseBrithani."

Ngisho noma i-OTO iqukethe, ekuqaleni, ukufundisa ngobulili ngamagceke amahle kakhulu kulo Myalelo, uma uCrowley ekhula eba yingqondo yalesi Siyalo, wakhulisa ngalezo zimfundiso futhi wazihlanganisa ngokulinganisa okulandelayo:

  • I-Masturbatory noma ngisho nezinqubo zemilingo yezocansi zifundiswa, okuthiwa i-Lesser Work Sol
  • Izindlela zemilingo zamanje zafundiswa
  • Izinqubo zokuziphatha ngokocansi zafundiswa.

UProfesa Ngokuhambisana noCrowley:

Incwadi yalo Mthetho iphazamisa inkinga. Umuntu ngamunye unakho konke okungcono ngoba kuyoba kuhle ngoba yena ngokwakhe ukuhlangabezana nesifiso sakhe. I-1 injunction yayizohlale inakekelwa eminingi yale misebenzi. Ukuze ukwazi ukukunika amandla okufeza intando, nakuba umuntu kufanele angadli ngenkathi ama-brutes. Okufanayo okuqondene nokulala komzimba. Kufanele sisebenze nesikole ngasinye.

Jabulela ifulegi yalesi Bear Nezakhamuzi zezilingo eziningi zezocansi nezenzansi ezisekelwe emacansini

Amagumbi alo Makhelwane endaweni yaseSan Francisco

Ukuziphatha ngokocansi kanye nemiphakathi ephathelene nobulili yizizinda eziphansi kanye nemiphakathi eyenziwe ngabantu abaye babelane ngezizinda, ama-adventures, noma izinselelo ngenxa yokuzibandakanya ngokobulili noma ngokobulili. Ngaso sonke isikhathi ukufakazela ukuthi izinhlangano ezincane zingenziwa ngaphezu kwamalungu azo zonke izinsizwa zaphela u-Adolf Brand, Magnus Hirschfeld, noLeontine Sagan eJalimane. Laba baholi baye balandelwa eduze yi-Mattachine Society kanye neDaughters of Bilitis e-United States.

Mhlawumbe akusikho amadoda amaningi okuzibandakanya ngokocansi kanye nobulili Ukubambisana noma ukukhomba ukusebenzisa isiko elithile elincane. Izizathu zihlanganisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuhlambalaza komphakathi, ibanga, ukungazi isimo sabo senkambiso, noma ukunambitheka ukuhlala ungaziwa nge-novelty-noma-ngisho nangaphansi kwamasiko noma imiphakathi. Abanye baye baveza ngisho nokuthi izimboni ezivela eNtshonalanga yezwe zithembele ekuveleni, zineziphambeko, futhi azilahli ibanga ukuvumela umphakathi jikelele ukuba ukhulume ngalezo zingalungile zendabuko kanye nobulili. Lokhu kushiya okuningi ukulahla lezo zimpawu ezibeka ukuthi zihlukaniswe ngaphansi kwalokho abakwaziyo ukukholelwa ukuthi yiziphi izimpawu ezihlehlisiwe futhi kaningi nakuba ziphika izidingo zabo siqu.

Ngisho nefulegi le-Rainbow yalo makhelwane we-LGBT

Ngisho ne-Bear Neighborhood yi-subculture ngaphakathi komakhelwane we-LGBT

Impucuko iyisiko esabiwe nabesilisa nabesifazane besifazane abesilisa nabesifazane abesilisa nabesifazane. Kungase kwaziwe ngokuthi "isiko sobulili" noma "isiko lesigqila", noma kunjalo, leyo misho ingase ibe yinto ekhethekile emphakathini wesilisa wobungqingili.

Ukuguqula indlela yokuphila nge geography kanye nokuzikhethela kwalokhu Abahlanganyeli. Izingxenye ezivame ukubonwa njengekwabelwana ngale mpucuko yama-gay, ama-lesbians, abesilisa nabesifazane, nabesilisa nabakwa-transgender bahlanganisa:

UJobe wobungqingili, ubungqingili, abesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabesilisa nabesifazane. Lokhu kungaqukatha:

Abaningi be-LGBT abaculi nezinhlamvu zikahulumeni;

Izibalo zomlando ezachazwa njenge-LGBT. Kuvame ukuphikisana ukuthi kulungile yini ukubona izibalo zasendulo zisebenzisa izigaba zanamuhla zokuhlonza ngokocansi (bheka uMlando wenveli). Amadoda nabesifazane abaningi be-LGBT bakholelwa ukuthi ukuhlolisana nomsebenzi wabo kanye nalabo bantu kulesi sikhundla kubhekana nokuhlonza ucansi noma ukuthanda okufanayo ngokocansi.

Ukuqwashisa kwe-LGBT kuhamba.

Ukuqonda izinto ezihlobene nokulingiswa kwamadoda nabesifazane be-LGBT.

Ama-Identities kanye nezibalo ezitholakala kule mphakathi ye-LGBT nomphakathi we-LGBT, lokhu kuzofaka umzana, ukuhudula amakhosikazi namakhosi, ukuthokoza kwe-gay, kanye nefulegi le-rainbow.

Emadolobheni athile, ikakhulukazi eNyakatho Melika, amadoda angqingili namadoda aseLesbiya ajwayele ukuhlala ezindaweni ezithize.

Imiphakathi yenza uhlelo oluthile lwezikhathi ezimbalwa zokugcina impucuko yabo, kufaka phakathi njengesibonelo isibalo sokuzikhukhumeza, imidlalo yamaGay kanye ne Southern Southern Decadence.

I-Polyamory

  • Okuthunyelwe okuyinhloko: I-Polyamory

I-Polyamory isiko sokuba nomtholampilo wakho Uxhumano oluthile noma oluhlobene no-1 ngabanye futhi ngokuziqhenya. I-polyamory ingase ivele empucuko, isigaba, noma ngisho neqembu lamadoda nabesifazane elikhethekile ekuhloleni kwakho noma ngokobulili. Emasikweni ambalwa ukuthi umkhuba wokwakha ubudlelwane obunzima obuthandana buphikisana.

Isithembu (umtholampilo ohluke kakhulu nge-polyamory) Kungaba ngumkhuba wokunikela okuningi kunomuntu we-1. Kuvela emithethweni yokushada phezu komuntu we-1 wase-United States; kodwa, uzothola izizwe eziningi emhlabeni wonke. Kungenzeka ukuthi akuyona into engavamile phakathi nemiphakathi yasempumalanga yabantu abadala ukuba babe namakhosikazi amaningana. Lolu hlobo lwexhumano lubizwa ngokuthi i-polygyny.

Imishado eminingi emisha ezindaweni eziningi Zomhlaba azikaze zishiye ukudalwa kokubili kwamasiko kanye nemiphakathi ukuthi imitholampilo yansuku zonke kanye nepolyamory. Kukhona imibiko yemiphakathi ye-polygamous eyasetshenziswa evela eNtshonalanga Yurophu naseNyakatho Melika. Le miiphakathi, ngisho nengxenye enkulu, ichithekile. Emiphakathini yeNtshonalanga kunamacala ambalwa noma ambalwa okugunyazwa kwepolyamory. Lokho akulandeli ukuthi ukuxhunyaniswa kwepolyamorous kwimiphakathi yasempumalanga (namasiko angaphansi) akukho. Kusuka e-United States kufakwe ukuthi amaphesenti angu-10 wabantu ayenzela i-polyamory.

I-polyamory ikhona ikakhulukazi njengamathuba angasodwa lapho abantu abanobudlelwane baye bashiya khona amalungiselelo nomlingani wabo (ngakho-ke). Kukhona izibonelo nokuhlukahluka okuningi kobudlelwane.

Ukugcizelela kufanele kube yilokho ezizweni lapho iPolyamory ikhona khona noma ikhona eyaziwayo, kungaphakathi kokuqukethwe kokuxhumana. Lokho kuzoba ngempela ukuqaphela ukuthi kulula ukwenza konke kokubili ukuthi iNtshonalanga nokuncoma imiphakathi ngokuzikhethela uma umuntu ehlola iqiniso ngendlela yokungazigwebi kubonakala sengathi iNtshonalanga iyakwamukela ngokwengeziwe iqembu labo le-LGBT nePolyamory ngenxa yalendlela:

  • Imiphakathi ehambisana nobulili
  • Umbiko Oyinhloko: U-fetishism wezocansi
  • Izishoshovu ze-BDSM eTaiwan
  • Ngisho nenhloko engapheliyo empeleni imane nje imfanekiselo we-polyamory.

I-sub-bunny i-Sub-Culture isebenzisa izinhlobo ezihlukahlukene ze-paraphilias kanye nezitshalo. Izinhlinzeko ezingezansi zenkambiso yayo yamabhanki zihlanganisa indawo ye-bunny kanye nombukiso wesifiso.

Ngisho nama-paraphilias ayenziwa kakhulu okutholakala kwi-sub-bunny Sub Culture

Indawo yes nightclub isekelwa yi-sub-bunny Sub Culture, kuhlobo lwe-nightclub yama-fetish.

Imiphumela emiphakathini yasemfudlaneni enkulu

Ama-sex minority cultures njalo futhi njalo imiphakathi yempucuko eqinisile. Umsunguli wezenhlalakahle uJoseph Gamson uqinisekisa ukuthi udumo oludumile lwentandokazi, oluphakanyiswe yi-Oprah Winfrey kuma-1980s anikezwe inhlanhla yezindaba ezivelele futhi enza ukuthuthukiswa kwemiphakathi. "'S Lang ivela emasikweni amancane, njengamasiko amancane amancane, ayo baba yingxenye yamagama abo angamagama ajwayelekile ngezilimi ngisho nezincazelo ngisho noma ezincane ezihlobene.

I-Madonna imiphakathi ye-Minority, isibonelo isabelo sayo sazo zonke izinto. Muva nje, i-VIDEO ye-Queer Eye ye-Guy Straight ivusa abesilisa abadala ukuthi banikezwe amacebo noma imfashini yokwenza ama-overs.

Imiphakathi engeyona eNtshonalanga

Emuva ku-2006, i-movie ye-Thai Rainbow Boys eyenziwe yi-Vitaya Saeng-aroon, ebonisa ukubambisana kobulili lwangesikhathi esangunobungqingili, bebukele ukubuka. I-Vitaya yenza umdlalo we-comedy Club M2, indawo e-sauna. Ukubaluleka kwe-movie kubonakala kuvelweni lwaso emasikweni uma kuqhathaniswa neWest njengoba libhekisela ezikhangweni zobulili kanye nezindima. Esinye isithombe se-2007, i-Bangkok Love Story, eholwa nguPoj Arnon, uye wadunyiswa ngenxa yokufa ngombono wakho ngobungqingili ngenxa yocansi le-transvestites. La madoda nabesifazane abazitholayo kanye nabalobi kanye nabafundi ngokusebenzisa izithombe zabo baqala ukuheha inkinga yezinkolelo kanye nobulili ngoba ngisho nokukhishwa kwenkambiso. Ezizweni eziningi, kodwa njalo ukuzwa ukugxekwa nokubandlululwa, ubungqingili kanye nokuziphatha ngokobulili kuvame ukuvunyelwa futhi kuvunyelwe ngokomthetho.

Awufani nemiphakathi yaseYurophu eyakhiwe kumaKristu igcina imithetho eminingi ephikisana ne-LGBT kuze kube yilapho imva nenkolo, impucuko yaseChina iye yamukelwa kakhulu ngokuphathelene nokuxhumana okungekho kuphela-okuphathelene nomlingani wobulili obuhlukile. Noma kunjalo kwakukhona imikhawulo evela ebuhlotsheni bokuqala bokuthuthukiswa kwamaShayina kubhalwe kusukela ngezigaba. Uzothola amarekhodi ezinsizakalo ezingaphansi kokubili kokuphila okwamanje empucuko yeChina, uzothola abantu abaphikisana nezitayela zokuphila kanye nokuxhumeka kobulili obufanayo.

Iningi lamaJapane lamukele ukuqoqwa komuntu siqu, Futhi ibanga liye lazungezile ngenxa yazo zonke izenzo zobulili eziyingqayizivele ezingezona kuphela emasiko aseNtshonalanga. Isikhathi senze isikhala sabo bonke labo imisebenzi yezocansi. Ngaphambi nje kokuthinta kwe-Western, iJapane ayinayo indlela yokuBheka ukuthi yikuphi ukuzikhethela komunye umuntu okuye kwaqinisekiswa yi-Sensual choice (bheka abancane abesilisa ngokobulili eJapane). Imibono ye-hegemonic Yendlela abantu okufanele bayenze ngayo iqhubeke iqina esizweni emazweni aseNtshonalanga. Ucwaningo lwangaphambili mayelana nokuzibandakanya ngokocansi kanye nezindima zobulili e-Asia Zigxile ngokujulile ekunciphiseni okukhethekile okukholelwa abesifazane, ngoba "Izakhiwo zokuba yisakhamuzi zikhulule ngokukhululekile isakhamuzi sabantu". Izithiyo zikholelwa Emadodeni ase-Asia Amabhankathi aphezulu kakhulu ngenxa yalesi "paradigm" ephakeme "Imibono yezimpikiswano" isipho esithi "ubukhulu bomuntu" kufaka isizinda futhi angeke sikhulume nje Futhi ngaphakathi kwemiphakathi nje kuphela nakuba kungenjalo emiphakathini ehlukahlukene Ngesikhathi se-eras. Futhi emiphakathini evamile yase-Asia yonke ibizwa ngokuthi, ubuningi. Noma kunjalo, izinhlobo ezikhethiwe zobuningi (kanye nobuntombi kulo Magazini) Yibani '' obuningi, obusisiwe.

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